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The Gentlemen (2019)

2020.04.11 03:53 maheshbvv The Gentlemen (2019)

[as Mickey walks into the bar]
Mickey Pearson: Bobby.
Barman: Boss?
Mickey Pearson: I’ll have a pint and a pickled egg.
Barman: Coming straight up.


Mickey Pearson: [voice over] If you wish to be the king of the jungle, it’s not enough to act like a king. You must be the king. There can be no doubt. Because doubt causes chaos and one’s own demise.
[we then see as Mickey calls Rosalind, another man walks behind him, and as Mickey overhears someone harassing Rosalind, a gunshot rings out and blood sprays]


[as Fletcher shows up at Ray’s house]
Ray: I should stab you with that f**king rolling pin!
Fletcher: Oh, don’t be c**ty. I was just hoping we could have a cozy little drink together. So, I’ve got a meeting on Saturday at your favorite newspaper. As the best private investigator in this smoky little town, good evening, ladies and gentlemen, they are ready to put a hundred and fifty grand in my pocket to give them some filth. Good for me, that, but in this case, it’s bad for you.


[after he’s demanded 20 million pounds in blackmail money]
Fletcher: I’m going to tell you a story to demonstrate why my quote is my quote. Will you play a game with me, Ray?
Ray: I don’t want to play a game.
Fletcher: Please?
Ray: No.
Fletcher: I said play a f**king game with me, Ray.


[he begins to tell Ray Mickey’s story]
Fletcher: Enter our protagonist. He’s good looking. He’s gorgeous. He’s golden age. He’s a proper handsome c**t. His name is Mickey Pearson. Unique background has our Mickey. American born, Rhodes scholar. So he’s born clever, but poor. Now that’s quite a leap from a trailer park in Americana to the thousand year-old university in old Angleterre, where he studies the dark art of horticulture. But he never finished his education, never went home, because he found his vocation. A naughty vocation. He’s a bad boy. He starts dealing the dirty wonder weed to his rich, British, upper-class uni pals, and realizes he’s rather good at it.


[as Fletcher continues to tell Mickey’s story to Ray]
Fletcher: But now the plot begins to thicken. He has reached a crossroads in his life. The middle class and the middle age, they’ve got to him. They’ve corrupted his appetite for the horrors. He’s gone soft. He wanted to cash in his chips, and get out of the game, and he seems to have found the perfect customer.


[at the gala dinner]
Mickey Pearson: Making a splash with the gentry.
Matthew: Oh, I like to make a splash whenever possible.
Mickey Pearson: Well, you also seem to understand the significance of a proper attire.
Matthew: Indeed I do. I believe a sense of ownership is vital in every aspect of life, perhaps never more so than when it comes to wardrobe. For every look there is a season, and for every season a strategy.
Fletcher: [voice over] Now starts the alpha dance. They’re not really talking about clothes, Raymond. Oh, f**king no. They’re like a pair of old doggies sniffing round one another’s intellectual a**holes. It’s a good old-fashioned C**k-off, Raymond.


[to Mickey; referring to Matthew]
Rosalind Pearson: He’s a fox, and foxes have a predictable nature. Trust this Jew about that Jew. If you let him in the henhouse, you can expect blood and feathers everywhere.


Matthew: How does anyone grow fifty tons of super skunk without letting anyone else know how they do it?
Mickey Pearson: I’m flattered to hear that from you, Matthew. I imagine that big brain of yours is sweating a stream of tears just trying to figure it out.
Matthew: Brilliance should be acknowledged.


[referring to his boss Big Dave and Mickey]
Fletcher: He wants to ruin him, but I am here to do you a favor. And it’s not like you’re not getting something for your money. You could even turn that script into a feature film, Raymond. We could make it together. We could be partners. I have learned off you lot. You got to look after number one, and now it’s my turn. The sun is not going up for me, Ray. It’s going down.


Mickey Pearson: I’ve gone to great lengths to make my operation as invisible as possible, Matthew. If you were standing on my bush, you wouldn’t know it. As a matter of fact, you are standing on my bush.


[referring to his weed]
Mickey Pearson: It’s the new gold rush. This is the thin end of a very fat wedge, sir.
Matthew: If it’s such a fat wedge, why don’t you keep it?
Mickey Pearson: You see, I’ve developed a reputation as a man who came up the hard way. You could say that there’s blood on these pretty white hands. But in the new business, once legal and under the jurisdiction of the respectable umbrella of ministerial legitimacy, an enterprise like this will need a face with a clean past, which sadly I do not possess. Retirement doesn’t sound so bad. Long walks in the countryside, pruning roses with my better half, raising some cubs. I’ve earned it.


Fletcher: Now that we’ve established the dilemma of our protagonist, let us turn to our antagonist. Many miles away, across the open plains, another beautiful feral beast lopes his way to a watering hole.
Ray: Who are you talking about now?
Fletcher: I talk, Raymondo, of Dry Eye. Ooh, Dry Eye. What is he? Chinese? Japanese? Pekingese? Get on your f**king knees? Dirty dragon filth.


[referring to Dry Eye]
Fletcher: He explodes on the scene like a millennial f**king firecracker. Bang, bang, bang, bang!
Ray: I’m going to have to stop you right there, Fletcher. That doesn’t sound like the Dry Eye I know.
Fletcher: Just making sure you’re paying attention, Raymond. So let’s cut instead to a somewhat anticlimactic, but suave and debonair Dry Eye, like a Chinese James Bond.


Dry Eye: A gentleman’s quote is a gentleman’s word.


[to Ray; referring to Rosalind]
Fletcher: I think the time has come for me to introduce you to our queen. A Cockney Cleopatra to Mickey’s cowboy Caesar. The only weak link, in his otherwise impregnable armor, is his devotion, his passion, some would say his obsession, with his beauteous lady wife.


Mickey Pearson: I like middle age. I like gentrification, private schools, fine wines, and a spoonful of caviar to help my medicine go down. But most importantly, I’m looking forward to spending more time with you.
Rosalind Pearson: Of course you are.


Rosalind Pearson: Look, I don’t want you knocking around here feeling all unemployed and lost with yourself.
Mickey Pearson: Well, f**k me. Most wives would beg their other halves to get out of this game, but not you.
Rosalind Pearson: That’s because I know you, darling.


Rosalind Pearson: Look, you’ll have to do this elegantly, love. If word spreads that you’re getting out, that could read as weakness. And if you smell smoke, it’s because there’s a fire, and that could get expensive. So you’re going to have to stamp that out without any gentrification. But not you, love. Don’t you do anything messy. That’s why you’ve got people, remember?
[as she grabs his crotch gently]
Mickey Pearson: I f**king love you, babe.
Rosalind Pearson: Of course you do.
[referring to them having sex]
Mickey Pearson: Any chance?
Rosalind Pearson: No, you can wait. I’ve got a red-hot Russki with her finger on the trigger. I got to deal with it.


Fletcher: I find you very impatient, Raymond. I am a storyteller. As they say in the film game, I’m laying pipe.
Ray: Well, you’d better put something through it soon.


[after Dry Eye gets a meeting with Mickey to offer to buy out his business]
Dry Eye: I understand you’re getting out.
Mickey Pearson: Getting out. Getting out of what? Bed? My head? The closet? Don’t flirt with me, Dry Eye. I’m a busy man.
Dry Eye: I hear you’re getting out of the game. And I would like you to consider an offer.
Mickey Pearson: Look, I’m going to stop you right there, so you don’t waste any more of your precious breath, young man. This is not a discussion for the two of us. Unlike the salt and pepper, it’s not on the table.


[after Dry Eye shows him the amount he’s willing to offer to buy his business]
Mickey Pearson: I am not for sale. And even if I was, you’re several zeros short. Now, you may be able to buy your man’s sausage for that, but to me it just looks rude at breakfast.
Dry Eye: You’re out of touch. You’re forgetting the laws of the jungle, looking down on me. Now, when the silverback’s got more silver than back, he best move on before he gets moved on. It’s not dignified. It’s beneath you, Michael. Trying to do you a favor. This is a big f**king number.
[pause]
Mickey Pearson: And this? Well, this is a big f**king gun.
[from under the table Mickey shoots]


[after he’s shot Dry Eye]
Mickey Pearson: Eyes not so dry now, are they? Hurts, does it? You looking for your balls, or a hole in the wall?
Dry Eye: F**k!
[as Dry Eye is crawling on the ground to get away]
Mickey Pearson: Where the f**k do you think you’re going? Because you’re not going out the way you came in, you deluded duck-eating c**t! Talking to me about the laws of the jungle. What was it? Something about being beneath me? Silver on back? There’s only one rule in this f**king jungle! When the lion’s hungry, he eats!
[he shoots and kills Dry Eye]


[after we’ve seen Fletcher’s version of how Mickey kills Dry Eye]
Ray: You’re wrong, Fletcher. That’s not how Michael works.
Fletcher: Yeah, I know. I know. I was just having a bit of fun. Every movie needs a bit of action, doesn’t it? And it’s not like Michael doesn’t have a reputation.
Ray: Had a reputation. He’s been gentrified.


[we see how really the meeting with Mickey and Dry Eye pans out after he refuses to sell]
Mickey Pearson: I know how you lot love fables, so let me share a little fable with you. There once was a young and foolish dragon who came to ask a wise and cunning lion about acquiring his territory. Now, the lion, he wasn’t interested, so he told the little dragon to f**k off. But the dragon couldn’t understand what “f**k off” meant, so he persisted, and continued to ask the lion about acquiring his territory. So the lion took the little dragon for a walk and put five bullets in his little dragon head. End of story. Now, allegedly there’s a message in there. I don’t know what it is, but you’re a clever boy, Dry Eye. Maybe you can explain it to me.
Ray: I think your time’s up, chaps.
Dry Eye: Michael, you should recons…
[Mickey tuts to stop him]
Mickey Pearson: Just marinade on it. In the meantime, f**k off.


[to some rowdy young guys in the cafe]
Coach: Don’t stand near me, son. You got your mouthwash muddled up with cat pi**. Take two steps back and wait your turn.


[to some rowdy young guys in the cafe]
Coach: Now make it quick. Make it funny.


[after Mickey’s weed lab is raided by amateur MMA fighters calling themselves The Toddlers]
Mickey Pearson: No sooner do I entertain Matthew’s offer to buy me out, and reject Dry Eye’s offer, does one of my farms get raided.
Rosalind Pearson: First time ever.
Mickey Pearson: Doesn’t feel like a coincidence, does it?
Rosalind Pearson: It isn’t. There’s f**kery afoot.
Mickey Pearson: How did they find it?
Ray: I don’t know. I’m making inquiries.


[after Matthew gives Mickey a 2-shot derringer]
Matthew: It’s a paperweight, to keep down all the paper I’m about to give you.
Mickey Pearson: Well, it looks like a gun.
Jackie: And it’s a paperweight.
Mickey Pearson: Seeing how in this country, unlike in our homeland, they’re illegal.
Jackie: So is riding your bicycle at night without lights. Laws are there as a guideline.
Matthew: In France, it’s illegal to call a pig Napoleon, but just try and stop me.
Mickey Pearson: I quite like it. You’re very kind. Thank you.
Matthew: Hands across the sea.


[after Mickey asks Ray to get Pressfield’s addict daughter, Laura, from a council estate]
Ray: It’s just that I don’t like smackies. It’s the filth, and the grime, and the grub in the tub.
Mickey Pearson: I’m not asking your OCD to spend the weekend with them, Ray. Think of it as philanthropy. Come on, you’re driving.
Ray: No good deed goes unpunished.


Ray: Anyway, back to you, Laura, queen in this here kingdom of sh*t. A single rose in a cauldron of thorns. Are you ready to turn a corner? Open the curtains and let the light in? Do your mum and dad a favor and try the impossible, make yourself happy.
Laura Pressfield: Alright.
Ray: F**king hell. That was easy.


[referring to Matthew]
Rosalind Pearson: Ah. He’s bought you a gun. That’s a nice little gift. Five years in prison all in one little box.
Mickey Pearson: Oh, but that’s not a gun, dear. That’s a paperweight.
Rosalind Pearson: Of course it is, along with a family of six baby bullets.


Ray: Sorry for the interruption.
Mickey Pearson: What do you need, Ray?
Ray: Laura Pressfield has been returned home safely.
Mickey Pearson: Good. What else?
Ray: One of her associates had an accident.
Mickey Pearson: Sh*t.
Ray: He fell out of a window, boss.


[after we see Laura’s room-mate, Aslan, falling out of the window to his death]
Rosalind Pearson: Sounds like quite an extreme accident.
Ray: Yeah, it was more like a death, really.


[referring to Aslan’s death]
Rosalind Pearson: So you killed someone?
Ray: No, it was the gravity that killed him.
Rosalind Pearson: Who was he?
Ray: Some Russian kid with tracks on his arms.
Rosalind Pearson: Russian kid? That doesn’t sound good.


Fletcher: I bet you told Mickey nothing about what happened.
Ray: You’re fishing, Fletcher, because you’ve got no idea.
Fletcher: You’re right, I am fishing. Look at this. I’m fishing in my little baggie. And what have I found? Oh. Thank you. Or should I say, spasibo?
[shows Ray a photo of Aslan’s dead body after his fall]


[as Coach finds out it was Mickey’s weed lab his boys raided]
Coach: Just tell me his name isn’t Mickey Pearson.
Ernie: Blimey, Coach, are you a Gypsy too? You been reading tea leaves, got a crystal ball?
Coach: That is not good news, Ernie. Mickey Pearson is terrible news in the face of a violent and expensive debt.


[Coach visits Ray to apologize for his MMA students raiding the weed lab]
Coach: My boys, they’re naive, they’ve had hard lives, and they’re just starting to come good, but they’re my lads, my responsibility. So it’s me that should be accountable for their actions. Now, I can return your goods, but I can’t return the inconvenience, the time, the f**king headache. And so I offer you my loyalty, my word, my time, until that debt is settled. I’ll make amends, but just leave me lads alone.
Ray: First of all, I’m going to need to know how your lads got the information about where our farm was sited, because that’s not common knowledge. Once we’ve overcome that little challenge, then we can talk.
Coach: Well, I can do better than that.


[to Ray; referring to the man tied up in the boot of his car]
Coach: His name is Phuhuc, but spelt with a PH, so it sounds like fuhuck.
Ray: So it’s Phuhuc?
Coach: What? Yeah. Yeah, something like that. Yeah. Anyway, he’s the kid that gave us the skunk farm job. Do you know him?
[to the Phuc]
Ray: Yeah. We’ve met before, haven’t we, Phuhuc, Phuc?
Coach: That’s the one.
Ray: Phuhuc?
Coach: Phuhuc.


[after Phuc escapes from Coach and Ray, jumps over a wall, falls onto train tracks and gets run over by a train]
Mickey Pearson: F**k’s sake, Ray! You need to invest in some parachutes. There’s a pattern emerging here.
Ray: I’m sorry, boss.
Mickey Pearson: And who’s this jumping Phuc boy, anyway?
Ray: It’s Dry Eye’s man.
Mickey Pearson: You mean Lord George’s man.


[Mickey visits Lord George as he think George is the one going after his business]
Mickey Pearson: What about tea?
Lord George: What about tea?
[he takes a sip of his tea]
Mickey Pearson: Well, that too is a vice. Caffeine is a drug, don’t you know?
Lord George: So is that what you’re here to talk to me about? Tea?
Mickey Pearson: Sweet Mary Jane is my vice of choice, as you well know. Of course, I’m addicted to selling it, not consuming it. I specifically chose to deal in marijuana. Sure, I could see there was more to be made in shifting the white, or the brown powder, as you so chose. But, you see, my jam, it doesn’t kill anyone, and I like that. While your poison, is and always has been, a destroyer of worlds. So, yes, your facilitation is most definitely participation. But I’m not here to give you a sermon on situational ethics.
Lord George: So why the f**k are you here?
[just then George violently throws up]


[after Mickey poisons George’s tea as retaliation for going after his business]
Mickey Pearson: You’re starting a war with me, George! And I’m trying to moonwalk with elegance here, but I’m finding it very f**king difficult.


Mickey Pearson: Should you try and undermine me, or should you attempt to threaten my position again, I will be forced to accept your call to arms. Do you understand?
[George nods]
Mickey Pearson: Good. Now, I can see you’re feeling somewhat under the weather. That’s because I spiked your tea with a nasty little parasitic genus called shigella. Left unattended, you will sh*t yourself to death before the sun doth set. I suggest taking two of these fizzy biscuits. You’ll be fine in an hour, or two, long enough to consider your past indiscretions. And, George, if I can get to you in your own kitchen, I can get to you anywhere.


[referring to Mickey]
Lord George: But you did go behind my back, and offer to buy his business?
Dry Eye: Yeah. Yeah, I did. Now, let me warn you the way you warn me. There comes a point where the young succeed the old. Don’t push me.


[as Fletcher show Ray a photo of Dry Eye and Matthew]
Ray: So Matthew knows Dry Eye. So what?
Fletcher: Well, yes, I agree. Perhaps they were just meeting up to talk about holidaying in the Maldives, or the long-term implications of leaving the EU. But I filmed it, had it lip-read, translated and transcribed. Rather like the classic 1974 film The Conversation, starring Gene Hackman and John Cazale. You know, Coppola slipped that one out between the Godfathers. It wasn’t really for me. It’s a bit boring, to be honest.


[as Fletcher shows Ray footage of Dry Eye and Matthew speaking in Cantonese and they are reading Fletcher’s translated lines]
Ray: “There was an incident. Lord George didn’t come through it.”
Fletcher: “Didn’t come through it? The last thing you need to do is attract any octopus.”
Ray: Octopus? What does that mean? It’s not a very good translation.
Fletcher: No, there’s nothing wrong with the translation. Matthew’s not that fluent. And it’s Cantonese. Just go with it, and fill in the blanks.


[as they continue to watch Fletcher’s footage of Dry Eye and Matthew and read the translated lines]
Ray: “There will be repercussions for Michael’s actions.”
Fletcher: “You think you’re running things, do you? Don’t stroke my mouse hair.”
Ray: What does “mouse hair” mean?
Fletcher: Yeah, I think what he means is, “Don’t jeopardize my deal,” but I admit that one’s a bit of a googly. Then Matthew loses it a bit, and his translation goes completely out of the window. Something about springtime and sweaters. I think what he means is he’s upset. And then Dry Eye says something, but some c**t moved in front of me, so I didn’t get that either.


[to Ray; after he shows his footage of the meeting between Dry Eye and Matthew]
Fletcher: And there you have it. That’s all I’ve got. Sorry. Show’s over. But I think it’s quite clear that they’re not just mahjong partners, are they?


[as Dry Eye tries to kidnap Rosalind]
Dry Eye: You know how it works. You either come with me, or Tony here is going to make you come with me.
Rosalind Pearson: You’re in my office under my roof. It’s not your position for Tony to do anything other than to f**k off back from whence he came.


[Rosalind gets out the 2-shot derringer Matthew gave Mickey earlier]
Dry Eye: What’s that? Is that a paperweight?
Rosalind Pearson: Funny you should say that. Turns out anything with weight can be a paperweight.
Dry Eye: What are you going to do with it?
Rosalind Pearson: Well, that’s up to you, isn’t it? Either you do as I tell you to, and use the door, or I’m going to shoot fat Tony right between the eyes. You see, this gun’s only got two bullets, so I’m not going to f**k about illustrating its significance. You’re going to have to trust me on that. The alternative is a little bit absolute.
Dry Eye: I’m going to have to check your grammar on that. It can’t be just a little bit absolute. It either is, or it isn’t.
Rosalind Pearson: Whatever it is, I’ve lost my patience. I’m telling you, I will squeeze this trigger and Tony will be no more.
[we then see her shoot Tony and the other henchmen, and as Dry Eye is about to rape her, Mickey reaches her in time to kill Dry Eye]


Ray: You’re too smart to be blackmailing us, Fletcher.
Fletcher: Yes, yes, and obviously I’ve taken precautionary measures. You can do all kinds of horrible things to me if you want. I might even enjoy them. But you’d have to leave the country and never come back.


Fletcher: [to Ray] You see, it was Matthew who told Dry Eye the location of Mickey’s farm, so he could steal his white widow super cheese to cause ripples, and reduce the market value. And that is why Phuc, in turn, got those juice-swilling, acne-backed muscle Marys to do the job. It was Matthew who set this whole train of events off. But what he did not plan on, you see, was Dry Eye, killing Lord George.


[to Dry Eye during their meeting]
Matthew: You’ve been in this paddling pool for two minutes. I’ve been swimming in the ocean with the sharks for twenty years. I’ll tell you how this plays out. You will drown, and then my Mossad crabs will eat you.


Fletcher: [to Ray] And this, my love, is why I want my hard-earned twenty million pounds. Because not only do I know exactly how Mickey’s business operates, but I also know that the very man he’s trying to sell it to is trying to force him into selling it on the cheap, and has indirectly started a war. So, you see, I think you should be calling me your trusted consigliere, or your spy behind the lines, your intellectual reconnaissance, if you prefer.


[after he’s finished his blackmailing story]
Fletcher: So, strong recommendation, just pay up and watch me recede into the sunset blowing kisses, yes?
Ray: Well, then, time to use the door, you black bastard.
Fletcher: Well, that’s just silly, isn’t it, because I’m not black.
Ray: No, but your f**king soul is, you dark c**t. Now, out of my house, because I’m going to bed.
Fletcher: Can I come with you?
Ray: No, but you can go smoke the exhaust pipe in the back of your hearse.
Fletcher: I might come anyway. You’ll just hear me scratching about in the dark, w**king into a hanky.


[as they watch the blackmail footage of Big Dave and the pig]
Ray: You can’t unsee it once you’ve seen it, can you?
Coach: No, you can’t unsee it. It’s nightmare fuel. That will be with me forever.


Coach: [to Ray] I’m not a f**king gangster. Now, I’ve been forced to do some gangster things, that’s okay. But I’m not the gift that keeps on giving. So with the greatest respect, I’ll do this one last thing for you, and then that’s it. No más. Three strikes and I’m out.


[to Mickey as they meet in a frozen fish plant]
Matthew: Your unit economics have taken a hit, and forecasting out your top-line growth margin in the current inimical climate, I calculate what was worth four hundred million a month ago, must now be valued at an anemic, mm, one thirty. You see, it’s not about the first domino that fell, Michael. It’s about the last.


Mickey Pearson: I like your domino analogy. The question I ask is, who tumbled the first domino?
Matthew: I’m afraid that’s not my concern, or my business, Michael.
Mickey Pearson: At the risk of contradicting you, it is very much your business, and certainly your concern. Only you made one mistake.
Matthew: That being?
Mickey Pearson: You seem to have mistaken me for some kind of a c**t. Let me introduce you to the first domino.
[Mickey reveals Dry Eye’s frozen dead body]


[after Mickey reveals Dry Eye’s frozen dead body]
Matthew: It’s a tad dramatic, isn’t it, corpses in freezers? Who is this man? What’s he got to do with anything that I’m talking about?
Mickey Pearson: I take it with that statement you are in denial of so-said relationship with this frozen Chinaman?
Matthew: Well, of course I’m in denial of it. I don’t have relationships with dead, frozen Chinamen.


Matthew: Business is business, Michael. It’s nothing personal.
Mickey Pearson: While I am not emotional about the money, there is a price indebted to me for the blood I’ve gotten on my hands restoring order to the untidiness that you created. And that price, according to you, four hundred minus one-thirty, is two hundred and seventy million dollars. And I’m keeping the business, while you are getting in the freezer. And you will make that transaction if you want to get out of the freezer. It is twenty-five below zero in there, so I assume you’ll last about an hour. That said, I wouldn’t f**k about, because frostbite is very expensive on the fingers and toes, so I would type as quickly as possible while you have the use of them.


Mickey Pearson: As stated, I am not emotional about the money. But I am emotional about the fact that someone laid their hands on my wife. My wife! No amount of money on God’s green earth can pay for that transgression, Matthew. No, for that, I want a pound of flesh.
[he picks up a sharp knife]
Matthew: A pound of flesh?
Mickey Pearson: It matters not to me where on your anatomy it is withdrawn from. If you don’t have the stomach to take it for yourself, big Bunny here is very adept with a knife, and, as you can see, he’s dressed for the weather. But a penny short, or a gram shy, and that freezer door does not open. Am I clear? Good.


[after Fletcher meets Ray to get his payment]
Ray: Of course we were aware of what Matthew was up to. We’re not complete f**king idiots. I’ve been onto you for a long time, Fletcher. I knew you’d been following Michael. They’re very similar, our jobs. Only I’m better at it than you are. I knew when you came over that night that you’d only be there for half an hour, to tell me how clever you are and try to blackmail us.


Ray: You’re never going to be a predator with us, Fletcher. You’re always going to be prey.


[after Fletcher reveals that he sold info to Aslan’s father]
Fletcher: The Russians are going to clean house. And you are part of that house, Raymond. They’re going to get Michael when he comes out of his meeting at the fish market. And they are coming here. So you see what I’ve done there? By telling you, I’ve saved your lives. Which I think in turn saves mine, doesn’t it?
[then we see Coach killing the two Russian hitmen sent to kill Ray, and Coaches boys killing the thugs who kidnapped Mickey and Fletcher escapes in the chaos]


[we see Fletcher pitching his story about Mickey to Miramax]
Fletcher: So the Toddlers spray the car with bullets, killing the Russians. The car rolls to a stop. Smash cut to black. Titles.
Movie Producer: So, what happened to Michael? I need an ending.
Fletcher: No, no, no, my darling. What you need, is a sequel. Think it over. Have a read. You know my fee. I’m off to La La to talk to the competition. Think about that. Got a plane to catch. And I’m gone.


[after his meeting, Fletcher gets into a cab only to find Ray is the driver]
Ray: Buenas tardes, Fletcher-mondo.
Fletcher: Raymond. Well, well, well. A man of many vocations, aren’t you?
[Fletcher tries to open the cab doors, but finds they are all locked]
Ray: Now I want you to play a game with me, Fletcher.


[last lines; after Raymond captures Fletcher in a cab]
Rosalind Pearson: He’s got Fletcher.
Mickey Pearson: [voice over] If you wish to be the king of the jungle, it’s not enough to act like a king. You must be the king. There can be no doubt. Because doubt causes chaos and one’s own demise. My queen told me that.
[to Rosalind; referring to them having sex]
Mickey Pearson: Any chance?
submitted by maheshbvv to scriptwriting [link] [comments]


2020.04.09 08:56 MWiatrak2077 america

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago.[19] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence.[20] The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories,[21] displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent.[21] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.[22][23] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power.
The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[24]
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[25] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value.[26][27] Although its population is 4% of the world total,[28] it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[29] Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.[30][31] It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending,[32] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[33]
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[34] After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans.[35] Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere.[36]
The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.[37][38][39] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[40]
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[41] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[42] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[41] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[41]
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.[43]
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[44] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[45]
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[46]
History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era
The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[19][47][48] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast[49] and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[50] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[51] The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.[52] Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America.[53]
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[54] The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida.[55] Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[56] In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming.[57]
A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo.[58][59] The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[60] Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[61] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[62]
Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[63] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons,[64][65] primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.[66][67]
While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600.[68][69] In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.[70] While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low.[68] Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.[68][69]
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[71] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[72][73]
European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[74] The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[75] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[76][77]
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[78] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[79]
European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[80] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[81][82] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[83][84] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[85]
With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies.[86] All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[87] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[88] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.[89]
During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[90] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[91]
In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[92] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[93][h]
During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[95] Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months.[96]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[97]
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day:[98] "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'".[99] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[98]
Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781,[100] Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[101]
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[102][103][104] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[105] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[106]
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[107] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[108] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[109] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[110] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[111]
American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States.[112] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[113] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[114] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[115] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[116][117][118][119] and the creation of additional western states.[120] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[121] For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture.[122] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[123] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[124]
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[124] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[125] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[126] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[127] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[128] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[129]
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States
Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[130] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[131] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[132]
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[133] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[134] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[135] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[136] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[137] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[138]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals[139] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[140] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[141] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[142][143][144]
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[145]
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[146] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[147] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[148] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[149] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[150]
U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[151] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[152] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen"[153] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[154][155] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[156] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[157]
Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[158] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[159][160] The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[161][162] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[163]
Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[164] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times.[165] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[166] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[166] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[167][168] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[169] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[170][171][172] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[173]
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[174][175][176][177][178] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[179]
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[180][181][182][183] This brought about unipolarity[184] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001
One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[185]
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[186] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[187] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[188]
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[189] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[190][191] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[192] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[193][194]
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[195] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[196] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[197] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[198] Barack Obama, the first African-American[199] and multiracial[200] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[201] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[202] and a relative decline in unemployment.[203] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[204] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[205]
President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
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2020.03.22 19:35 Autopsy_IV Ninebullets Radio: Episode 11: Sunday Morning Covid Down Edition

“May You Live In Interesting Times.” ~ Traditional Chinese Curse
Man. We are there aren’t we. I have brought my office home at this point and am pretty much only leaving the house to go to the grocery store on occasion to stare at empty shelves. No concerts, no hockey, no fun so I decided to make a new show. You’re in the same boat as me so set aside 2 hours and give it a listen. We got new material from Caleb Caudle, American Aquarium, Larkin Poe, Hellbound Glory, The Masterons, and lots of others.
Stay safe out there kids and mind what the CDC is saying, ignore the orange chucklehead. stay socially distant and with any luck we’ll be back to business as normal sooner than later. Till then, I was thinking about making a weekly 1-hour show while we’re under quarantine/shelter-at-home status. Anyone have any interest in that?
Go here: http://www.9bradio.net/ninebullets-radio-episode-11-sunday-morning-covid-down-edition/
Here this [Artist – Song (Album)]:
  1. Have Gun, Will Travel – Standing At The End Of The World (Fiction, Fact or Folktale?)
    1. Morgan Wade & the Stepbrothers – Songs I Won’t Remember (Puppets With My Heart)
    2. Matt Woods – Hey, Heartbreaker (Natural Disasters)
    3. Lucero – Everything Has Changed (Among The Ghosts)
    4. Larkin Poe – She’s A Self Made Man (She’s A Self Made Man)
    5. Bob Fleming and the Cambria Iron Company – Flip of a Coin (Mother Mary)
    6. Caleb Caudle – Monte Carlo (Better Hurry Up)
    7. American Aquarium – The Long Haul (Lamentations)
    8. Sadler Vaden – Don’t Worry (Anybody Out There?)
    9. The Mastersons – The Last Laugh (No Time For Love Songs)
    10. Van Darien – American Steel (Levee)
    11. Uncle Lucius – Keep The Wolves Away (Uncle Lucius)
    12. Gabe Lee – Honky Tonk Hell (Honky Tonk Hell)
    13. Ashley McBryde – First Thing I Reach For (Never Will)
    14. The SteelDrivers – Bad For You (Bad For You)
    15. Hellbound Glory – Damned Angel (Pure Scum)
    16. The White Buffalo – The Rapture (On The Widows Walk)
    17. Hailey Whitters – The Devil Always Made Me Think Twice (The Dream)
    18. Jade Jackson – Bottle It Up (Wilderness)
    19. Rookie – Sunglasses (Rookie)
    20. Justin Wells – Ruby (The Burl Sessions)
    21. Rye Davis – King Me (Rye Davis)
    22. Ritch Henderson – If It’s Only For Tonight (Single)
    23. Joshua Ray Walker – Voices (Voices)
    24. Jason Isbell – What’ve I Done to Help (Reunions)
    25. Nathan Kalish – Pam & Tim (Songs For Nobody)
    26. Jared Rabin – No Direction (No Direction)
    27. Anna Lynch – Hotter Than Hades (Apples In The Fall)
    28. Zach Bryan – Rest, Rose (Single)
    29. Glossary – Trouble Won’t Last Always (Long Live All Of Us)
Bold = Request
Ninebullets Radio on: Facebook, Soundcloud, Stitcher, Apple Podcasts, Google Music, IHeartRadio
P.S.: If you like this show, do me a favor and post about it on your Facebook/TwitteInstagram. It’ll do a lot to help these bands reach new ears and in the end, that’s what this is all about.
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2020.03.22 19:35 Autopsy_IV Ninebullets Radio: Episode 11: Sunday Morning Covid Down Edition

“May You Live In Interesting Times.” ~ Traditional Chinese Curse
Man. We are there aren’t we. I have brought my office home at this point and am pretty much only leaving the house to go to the grocery store on occasion to stare at empty shelves. No concerts, no hockey, no fun so I decided to make a new show. You’re in the same boat as me so set aside 2 hours and give it a listen. We got new material from Caleb Caudle, American Aquarium, Larkin Poe, Hellbound Glory, The Masterons, and lots of others.
Stay safe out there kids and mind what the CDC is saying, ignore the orange chucklehead. stay socially distant and with any luck we’ll be back to business as normal sooner than later. Till then, I was thinking about making a weekly 1-hour show while we’re under quarantine/shelter-at-home status. Anyone have any interest in that?
Go here: http://www.9bradio.net/ninebullets-radio-episode-11-sunday-morning-covid-down-edition/
Here this [Artist – Song (Album)]:
  1. Have Gun, Will Travel – Standing At The End Of The World (Fiction, Fact or Folktale?)
    1. Morgan Wade & the Stepbrothers – Songs I Won’t Remember (Puppets With My Heart)
    2. Matt Woods – Hey, Heartbreaker (Natural Disasters)
    3. Lucero – Everything Has Changed (Among The Ghosts)
    4. Larkin Poe – She’s A Self Made Man (She’s A Self Made Man)
    5. Bob Fleming and the Cambria Iron Company – Flip of a Coin (Mother Mary)
    6. Caleb Caudle – Monte Carlo (Better Hurry Up)
    7. American Aquarium – The Long Haul (Lamentations)
    8. Sadler Vaden – Don’t Worry (Anybody Out There?)
    9. The Mastersons – The Last Laugh (No Time For Love Songs)
    10. Van Darien – American Steel (Levee)
    11. Uncle Lucius – Keep The Wolves Away (Uncle Lucius)
    12. Gabe Lee – Honky Tonk Hell (Honky Tonk Hell)
    13. Ashley McBryde – First Thing I Reach For (Never Will)
    14. The SteelDrivers – Bad For You (Bad For You)
    15. Hellbound Glory – Damned Angel (Pure Scum)
    16. The White Buffalo – The Rapture (On The Widows Walk)
    17. Hailey Whitters – The Devil Always Made Me Think Twice (The Dream)
    18. Jade Jackson – Bottle It Up (Wilderness)
    19. Rookie – Sunglasses (Rookie)
    20. Justin Wells – Ruby (The Burl Sessions)
    21. Rye Davis – King Me (Rye Davis)
    22. Ritch Henderson – If It’s Only For Tonight (Single)
    23. Joshua Ray Walker – Voices (Voices)
    24. Jason Isbell – What’ve I Done to Help (Reunions)
    25. Nathan Kalish – Pam & Tim (Songs For Nobody)
    26. Jared Rabin – No Direction (No Direction)
    27. Anna Lynch – Hotter Than Hades (Apples In The Fall)
    28. Zach Bryan – Rest, Rose (Single)
    29. Glossary – Trouble Won’t Last Always (Long Live All Of Us)
Bold = Request
Ninebullets Radio on: Facebook, Soundcloud, Stitcher, Apple Podcasts, Google Music, IHeartRadio
P.S.: If you like this show, do me a favor and post about it on your Facebook/TwitteInstagram. It’ll do a lot to help these bands reach new ears and in the end, that’s what this is all about.
submitted by Autopsy_IV to country [link] [comments]


2020.03.22 19:34 Autopsy_IV Ninebullets Radio: Episode 11: Sunday Morning Covid Down Edition

“May You Live In Interesting Times.” ~ Traditional Chinese Curse
Man. We are there aren’t we. I have brought my office home at this point and am pretty much only leaving the house to go to the grocery store on occasion to stare at empty shelves. No concerts, no hockey, no fun so I decided to make a new show. You’re in the same boat as me so set aside 2 hours and give it a listen. We got new material from Caleb Caudle, American Aquarium, Larkin Poe, Hellbound Glory, The Masterons, and lots of others.
Stay safe out there kids and mind what the CDC is saying, ignore the orange chucklehead. stay socially distant and with any luck we’ll be back to business as normal sooner than later. Till then, I was thinking about making a weekly 1-hour show while we’re under quarantine/shelter-at-home status. Anyone have any interest in that?
Go here: http://www.9bradio.net/ninebullets-radio-episode-11-sunday-morning-covid-down-edition/
Here this [Artist – Song (Album)]:
  1. Have Gun, Will Travel – Standing At The End Of The World (Fiction, Fact or Folktale?)
    1. Morgan Wade & the Stepbrothers – Songs I Won’t Remember (Puppets With My Heart)
    2. Matt Woods – Hey, Heartbreaker (Natural Disasters)
    3. Lucero – Everything Has Changed (Among The Ghosts)
    4. Larkin Poe – She’s A Self Made Man (She’s A Self Made Man)
    5. Bob Fleming and the Cambria Iron Company – Flip of a Coin (Mother Mary)
    6. Caleb Caudle – Monte Carlo (Better Hurry Up)
    7. American Aquarium – The Long Haul (Lamentations)
    8. Sadler Vaden – Don’t Worry (Anybody Out There?)
    9. The Mastersons – The Last Laugh (No Time For Love Songs)
    10. Van Darien – American Steel (Levee)
    11. Uncle Lucius – Keep The Wolves Away (Uncle Lucius)
    12. Gabe Lee – Honky Tonk Hell (Honky Tonk Hell)
    13. Ashley McBryde – First Thing I Reach For (Never Will)
    14. The SteelDrivers – Bad For You (Bad For You)
    15. Hellbound Glory – Damned Angel (Pure Scum)
    16. The White Buffalo – The Rapture (On The Widows Walk)
    17. Hailey Whitters – The Devil Always Made Me Think Twice (The Dream)
    18. Jade Jackson – Bottle It Up (Wilderness)
    19. Rookie – Sunglasses (Rookie)
    20. Justin Wells – Ruby (The Burl Sessions)
    21. Rye Davis – King Me (Rye Davis)
    22. Ritch Henderson – If It’s Only For Tonight (Single)
    23. Joshua Ray Walker – Voices (Voices)
    24. Jason Isbell – What’ve I Done to Help (Reunions)
    25. Nathan Kalish – Pam & Tim (Songs For Nobody)
    26. Jared Rabin – No Direction (No Direction)
    27. Anna Lynch – Hotter Than Hades (Apples In The Fall)
    28. Zach Bryan – Rest, Rose (Single)
    29. Glossary – Trouble Won’t Last Always (Long Live All Of Us)
Bold = Request
Ninebullets Radio on: Facebook, Soundcloud, Stitcher, Apple Podcasts, Google Music, IHeartRadio
P.S.: If you like this show, do me a favor and post about it on your Facebook/TwitteInstagram. It’ll do a lot to help these bands reach new ears and in the end, that’s what this is all about.
submitted by Autopsy_IV to Americana [link] [comments]


2019.08.26 11:55 Serynaide_ comedy

Comedy Read in another language Watch this page Edit This article is about a genre of dramatic works. For other uses, see Comedy (disambiguation). For the popular meaning of the term "comedy", see Humour. In a modern sense, comedy (from the Greek: κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters.[1] The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old."[2] A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter.[3]
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without necessarily condemning them.
Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor largely from bizarre, surprising (and improbable) situations or characters, and black comedy, which is characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Similarly scatological humor, sexual humor, and race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners typically takes as its subject a particular part of society (usually upper-class society) and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love.
Etymology Edit
Tragic Comic Masks of Ancient Greek Theatre represented in the Hadrian's Villa mosaic The word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, which is a compound either of κῶμος kômos (revel) or κώμη kṓmē (village) and ᾠδή ōidḗ (singing); it is possible that κῶμος itself is derived from κώμη, and originally meant a village revel. The adjective "comic" (Greek κωμικός kōmikós), which strictly means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage, generally confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking".[4] Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning.[5]
The Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average (where tragedy was an imitation of men better than the average). However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, which is a species of the Ugly. The Ridiculous may be defined as a mistake or deformity not productive of pain or harm to others; the mask, for instance, that excites laughter is something ugly and distorted without causing pain.[6] In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings. It is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of his poem, La Commedia.
As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter.[5] During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, and later with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, and his pupils Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija (satirical poetry). They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy.
After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature.[7]
In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque, irony, and satire.[8][9]
History Edit
Western history of comedy Edit Dionysiac origins, Aristophanes and Aristotle Edit See also: Old Comedy, Menander, and Ancient Greek comedy
Roman-era mosaic depicting a scene from Menander's comedy Samia ("The Woman from Samos") Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive. Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were often highly obscene.[10] The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much later examples and not representative of the genre.[11] In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings.[12]
Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly. He also adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated seriously from its inception.[13] However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia.
Aristotle taught that comedy was generally positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, and satire. On the contrary, Plato taught that comedy is a destruction to the self. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides rational self-control and learning. In The Republic, he says that the guardians of the state should avoid laughter, "for ordinarily when one abandons himself to violent laughter, his condition provokes a violent reaction." Plato says comedy should be tightly controlled if one wants to achieve the ideal state.
Also in Poetics, Aristotle defined comedy as one of the original four genres of literature. The other three genres are tragedy, epic poetry, and lyric poetry. Literature, in general, is defined by Aristotle as a mimesis, or imitation of life. Comedy is the third form of literature, being the most divorced from a true mimesis. Tragedy is the truest mimesis, followed by epic poetry, comedy, and lyric poetry. The genre of comedy is defined by a certain pattern according to Aristotle's definition. Comedies begin with low or base characters seeking insignificant aims and end with some accomplishment of the aims which either lightens the initial baseness or reveals the insignificance of the aims.
Early Renaissance forms of comedy Edit Main articles: Divine Comedy and Dante The Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia [diˈviːna komˈmɛːdja]) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature[14] and one of the greatest works of world literature.[15] The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written, as the standardized Italian language.[16] It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
The narrative describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise or Heaven,[17] while allegorically the poem represents the soul's journey towards God.[18] Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy, especially Thomistic philosophy and the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas.[19] Consequently, the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse".[20] In Dante's work, Virgil is presented as human reason and Beatrice is presented as divine knowledge.[21]
The work was originally simply titled Comedia (so also in the first printed edition, published in 1472). The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio, and the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce,[22] published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari.
The Divine Comedy is composed of 14,233 lines that are divided into three cantiche (singular cantica) – Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise) – each consisting of 33 cantos (Italian plural canti). An initial canto, serving as an introduction to the poem and generally considered to be part of the first cantica, brings the total number of cantos to 100. It is generally accepted, however, that the first two cantos serve as a unitary prologue to the entire epic, and that the opening two cantos of each cantica serve as prologues to each of the three cantiche.[23][24][25]
Commedia dell'arte and Shakespearean, Elizabethan comedy Edit
Title page of the first quarto of Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream (1600) "Comedy", in its Elizabethan usage, had a very different meaning from modern comedy. A Shakespearean comedy is one that has a happy ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted than Shakespeare's other plays.[26]
The Punch and Judy show has roots in the 16th-century Italian commedia dell'arte. The figure of Punch derives from the Neapolitan stock character of Pulcinella.[27] The figure who later became Mr. Punch made his first recorded appearance in England in 1662.[28] Punch and Judy are performed in the spirit of outrageous comedy — often provoking shocked laughter — and are dominated by the anarchic clowning of Mr. Punch.[29] Appearing at a significant period in British history, professor Glyn Edwards states: "[Pulcinella] went down particularly well with Restoration British audiences, fun-starved after years of Puritanism. We soon changed Punch's name, transformed him from a marionette to a hand puppet, and he became, really, a spirit of Britain — a subversive maverick who defies authority, a kind of puppet equivalent to our political cartoons."[28]
19th to early 20th century Edit Main article: Clown In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy and featured the first mainstream clown Joseph Grimaldi, while comedy routines also featured heavily in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s.[30] British comedians who honed their skills in music hall sketches include Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel and Dan Leno.[31] English music hall comedian and theatre impresario Fred Karno developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue in the 1890s, and Chaplin and Laurel were among the comedians who worked for his company.[31] Karno was a pioneer of slapstick, and in his biography, Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie [Chaplin] and me all we know about comedy. He just taught us most of it".[32] Film producer Hal Roach stated: "Fred Karno is not only a genius, he is the man who originated slapstick comedy. We in Hollywood owe much to him."[33] American vaudeville emerged in the 1880s and remained popular until the 1930s, and featured comedians such as W. C. Fields, Buster Keaton and the Marx Brothers.
20th century theatre and art Edit See also: Surreal humour, Theatre of the Absurd, and Absurdist fiction Surreal humour (also known as 'absurdist humour'), or 'surreal comedy', is a form of humour predicated on deliberate violations of causal reasoning, producing events and behaviours that are obviously illogical. Constructions of surreal humour tend to involve bizarre juxtapositions, incongruity, non-sequiturs, irrational or absurd situations and expressions of nonsense.[34] The humour arises from a subversion of audience's expectations, so that amusement is founded on unpredictability, separate from a logical analysis of the situation. The humour derived gets its appeal from the ridiculousness and unlikeliness of the situation. The genre has roots in Surrealism in the arts.[34]
Edward Lear, Aged 73 and a Half and His Cat Foss, Aged 16, an 1885 lithograph by Edward Lear Surreal humour is the effect of illogic and absurdity being used for humorous effect. Under such premises, people can identify precursors and early examples of surreal humour at least since the 19th century, such as Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, which both use illogic and absurdity (hookah-smoking caterpillars, croquet matches using live flamingos as mallets, etc.) for humorous effect. Many of Edward Lear's children stories and poems contain nonsense and are basically surreal in approach. For example, The Story of the Four Little Children Who Went Round the World (1871) is filled with contradictory statements and odd images intended to provoke amusement, such as the following:
After a time they saw some land at a distance; and when they came to it, they found it was an island made of water quite surrounded by earth. Besides that, it was bordered by evanescent isthmuses with a great Gulf-stream running about all over it, so that it was perfectly beautiful, and contained only a single tree, 503 feet high.[35]
In the early 20th century, several avant-garde movements, including the dadaists, surrealists, and futurists, began to argue for an art that was random, jarring and illogical.[36] The goals of these movements were in some sense serious, and they were committed to undermining the solemnity and self-satisfaction of the contemporary artistic establishment. As a result, much of their art was intentionally amusing.
A famous example is Marcel Duchamp's Fountain (1917), an inverted urinal signed "R. Mutt". This became one of the most famous and influential pieces of art in history, and one of the earliest examples of the found object movement. It is also a joke, relying on the inversion of the item's function as expressed by its title as well as its incongruous presence in an art exhibition.[37]
20th century film and television Edit
Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis (ca. 1950)
Jim Carrey mugs for the camera
Rowan Atkinson as Mr. Bean
Jackie Chan at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival
Stand-up comedian Margaret Cho
Popov the Clown in 2009
Barry Humphries in character in London as "Dame Edna Everage" on the day of 2011 Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton
Jordan Peele at the Peabody awards. The advent of cinema in the late 19th century, and later radio and television in the 20th century broadened the access of comedians to the general public. Charlie Chaplin, through silent film, became one of the best-known faces on earth. The silent tradition lived on well into the 20th century through mime artists like Marcel Marceau, and the physical comedy of artists like Rowan Atkinson as Mr. Bean. The tradition of the circus clown also continued, with such as Bozo the Clown in the United States and Oleg Popov in Russia. Radio provided new possibilities — with Britain producing the influential Goon Show after the Second World War. American cinema has produced a great number of globally renowned comedy artists, from Laurel and Hardy, the Three Stooges, Abbott and Costello, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis, as well as Bob Hope during the mid-20th century, to performers like George Carlin, Robin Williams, and Eddie Murphy at the end of the century. Hollywood attracted many international talents like the British comics Peter Sellers, Dudley Moore and Sacha Baron Cohen, Canadian comics Dan Aykroyd, Jim Carrey, and Mike Myers, and the Australian comedian Paul Hogan, famous for Crocodile Dundee. Other centres of creative comic activity have been the cinema of Hong Kong, Bollywood, and French farce.
American television has also been an influential force in world comedy: with American series like MAS*H, Seinfeld and The Simpsons achieving large followings around the world. British television comedy also remains influential, with quintessential works including Fawlty Towers, Monty Python, Dad's Army, Blackadder, and The Office. Australian satirist Barry Humphries, whose comic creations include the housewife and "gigastar" Dame Edna Everage, for his delivery of Dadaist and absurdist humour to millions, was described by biographer Anne Pender in 2010 as not only "the most significant theatrical figure of our time ... [but] the most significant comedian to emerge since Charlie Chaplin".[38]
Non-Western history of comedy Edit Classical Sanskrit Dramas, Plays, and Epics of Ancient India Edit See also: Sanskrit Drama, Mahabharata, and Bhagavata Purana By 200 BC,[39] in ancient Sanskrit drama, Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra defined humour (hāsyam) as one of the nine nava rasas, or principle rasas (emotional responses), which can be inspired in the audience by bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform. Each rasa was associated with a specific bhavas portrayed on stage. In the case of humour, it was associated with mirth (hasya).
Studies on the theory of the comic Edit
The phenomena connected with laughter and that which provokes it have been carefully investigated by psychologists. They agree the predominant characteristics are incongruity or contrast in the object and shock or emotional seizure on the part of the subject. It has also been held that the feeling of superiority is an essential factor: thus Thomas Hobbes speaks of laughter as a "sudden glory". Modern investigators have paid much attention to the origin both of laughter and of smiling, as well as the development of the "play instinct" and its emotional expression.
George Meredith said that "One excellent test of the civilization of a country ... I take to be the flourishing of the Comic idea and Comedy, and the test of true Comedy is that it shall awaken thoughtful laughter." Laughter is said to be the cure for being sick. Studies show that people who laugh more often get sick less.[40][41]
American literary theorist Kenneth Burke writes that the "comic frame" in rhetoric is "neither wholly euphemistic, nor wholly debunking—hence it provides the charitable attitude towards people that is required for purposes of persuasion and co-operation, but at the same time maintains our shrewdness concerning the simplicities of ‘cashing in.’" [42] The purpose of the comic frame is to satirize a given circumstance and promote change by doing so. The comic frame makes fun of situations and people, while simultaneously provoking thought.[43] The comic frame does not aim to vilify in its analysis, but rather, rebuke the stupidity and foolery of those involved in the circumstances.[44] For example, on The Daily Show, Jon Stewart uses the "comic frame" to intervene in political arguments, often offering crude humor in sudden contrast to serious news. In a segment on President Obama's trip to China Stewart remarks on America's debt to the Chinese government while also having a weak relationship with the country. After depicting this dismal situation, Stewart shifts to speak directly to President Obama, calling upon him to "shine that turd up."[45] For Stewart and his audience, introducing coarse language into what is otherwise a serious commentary on the state of foreign relations serves to frame the segment comically, creating a serious tone underlying the comedic agenda presented by Stewart.
Forms Edit
Main article: Comedic genres Comedy may be divided into multiple genres based on the source of humor, the method of delivery, and the context in which it is delivered. The different forms of comedy often overlap, and most comedy can fit into multiple genres. Some of the subgenres of comedy are farce, comedy of manners, burlesque, and satire.
Some comedy apes certain cultural forms: for instance, parody and satire often imitate the conventions of the genre they are parodying or satirizing. For example, in the United States, parodies of newspapers and television news include The Onion, and The Colbert Report; in Australia, shows such as Kath & Kim, Utopia, and Shaun Micallef's Mad As Hell perform the same role.
Self-deprecation is a technique of comedy used by many comedians who focus on their misfortunes and foibles in order to entertain.
Performing arts Edit
Main article: Comedy (drama) Historical forms Edit Ancient Greek comedy, as practiced by Aristophanes and Menander Ancient Roman comedy, as practiced by Plautus and Terence Burlesque, from Music hall and Vaudeville to Performance art Citizen comedy, as practiced by Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton and Ben Jonson Clowns such as Richard Tarlton, William Kempe, and Robert Armin Comedy of humours, as practiced by Ben Jonson and George Chapman Comedy of intrigue, as practiced by Niccolò Machiavelli and Lope de Vega Comedy of manners, as practiced by Molière, William Wycherley and William Congreve Comedy of menace, as practiced by David Campton and Harold Pinter comédie larmoyante or 'tearful comedy', as practiced by Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée and Louis-Sébastien Mercier Commedia dell'arte, as practiced in the twentieth century by Dario Fo, Vsevolod Meyerhold, and Jacques Copeau Farce, from Georges Feydeau to Joe Orton and Alan Ayckbourn Jester Laughing comedy, as practiced by Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan Restoration comedy, as practiced by George Etherege, Aphra Behn and John Vanbrugh Sentimental comedy, as practiced by Colley Cibber and Richard Steele Shakespearean comedy, as practiced by William Shakespeare Stand-up comedy Dadaist and Surrealist performance, usually in cabaret form Theatre of the Absurd, used by some critics to describe Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, Jean Genet and Eugène Ionesco[46] Sketch comedy Plays Edit Comic theatre Musical comedy and palace Opera Edit Comic opera Improvisational comedy Edit Improvisational theatre Bouffon comedy Clowns Jokes Edit One-liner joke Blonde jokes Shaggy-dog story Paddy Irishman joke Polish jokes Light bulb jokes Stand-up comedy Edit Stand-up comedy is a mode of comic performance in which the performer addresses the audience directly, usually speaking in their own person rather than as a dramatic character.
Impressionist (entertainment) Alternative comedy Comedy club Comedy albums Events and awards Edit
American Comedy Awards British Comedy Awards Canadian Comedy Awards Cat Laughs Comedy Festival The Comedy Festival, Aspen, Colorado, formerly the HBO Comedy Arts Festival Edinburgh Festival Fringe Edinburgh Comedy Festival Halifax Comedy Festival Just for Laughs festival, Montreal Leicester Comedy Festival Mark Twain Prize for American Humor Melbourne International Comedy Festival New Zealand International Comedy Festival New York Underground Comedy Festival HK International Comedy Festival List of comedians Edit
List of stand-up comedians List of musical comedians List of Australian comedians List of British comedians List of Canadian comedians List of Filipino comedians List of Finnish comedians List of German language comedians List of Indian comedians List of Italian comedians List of Mexican comedians List of Puerto Rican comedians Mass media Edit
Literature Edit Comic novel Light poetry Comedic journalism Film Edit Comedy film Anarchic comedy film Gross-out film Parody film Romantic comedy Screwball comedy film Slapstick film Television and radio Edit Television comedy Situation comedy Radio comedy Comedy networks Edit British sitcom British comedy Comedy Central – A television channel devoted strictly to comedy Comedy Nights with Kapil – An Indian television program German television comedy List of British TV shows remade for the American market Paramount Comedy (Spain) Paramount Comedy 1 and 2. TBS (TV network) The Comedy Channel (Australia) The Comedy Channel (UK) The Comedy Channel (United States) – merged into Comedy Central. HA! – merged into Comedy Central The Comedy Network, a Canadian TV channel. Gold See also Edit
Lists of comedy films List of comedy television series List of genres Theories of humor Women in comedy Footnotes Edit
^ Henderson, J. (1993) Comic Hero versus Political Elite pp. 307–19 in Sommerstein, A.H.; S. Halliwell; J. Henderson; B. Zimmerman, eds. (1993). Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis. Bari: Levante Editori. ^ (Anatomy of Criticism, 1957) ^ Marteinson, 2006 ^ Cornford (1934)[page needed] ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary ^ McKeon, Richard. The Basic Works Of Aristotle, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001, p. 1459. ^ Webber, Edwin J. (January 1958). "Comedy as Satire in Hispano-Arabic Spain". Hispanic Review. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.2307/470561. JSTOR 470561. ^ Herman Braet, Guido Latré, Werner Verbeke (2003) Risus mediaevalis: laughter in medieval literature and art p.1 quotation: The deliberate use by Menard of the term 'le rire' rather than 'l'humour' reflects accurately the current evidency to incorporate all instances of the comic in the analysis, while the classification in genres and fields such as grotesque, humour and even irony or satire always poses problems. The terms humour and laughter are therefore pragmatically used in recent historiography to cover the entire spectrum.
^ , Ménard, Philippe (1988) Le rire et le sourire au Moyen Age dans la littérature et les arts. Essai de problématique in Bouché, T. and Charpentier H. (eds., 1988) Le rire au Moyen Âge, Actes du colloque international de Bordeaux, pp. 7–30 ^ Aristophanes (1996) Lysistrata, Introduction, p.ix, published by Nick Hern Books ^ Reckford, Kenneth J. (1987)Aristophanes' Old-and-new Comedy: Six essays in perspective p.105 ^ Cornford, F.M. (1934) The Origin of Attic Comedy pp.3-4 quotation: That Comedy sprang up and took shape in connection with Dionysiac or Phallic ritual has never been doubted.
^ "Aristotle, Poetics, lines beginning at 1449a". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-30. ^ For example, Encyclopedia Americana, 2006, Vol. 30. p. 605: "the greatest single work of Italian literature;" John Julius Norwich, The Italians: History, Art, and the Genius of a People, Abrams, 1983, p. 27: "his tremendous poem, still after six and a half centuries the supreme work of Italian literature, remains – after the legacy of ancient Rome – the grandest single element in the Italian heritage;" and Robert Reinhold Ergang, The Renaissance, Van Nostrand, 1967, p. 103: "Many literary historians regard the Divine Comedy as the greatest work of Italian literature. In world literature, it is ranked as an epic poem of the highest order." ^ Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon. See also Western canon for other "canons" that include the Divine Comedy. ^ See Lepschy, Laura; Lepschy, Giulio (1977). The Italian Language Today. or any other history of Italian language. ^ Peter E. Bondanella, The Inferno, Introduction, p. xliii, Barnes & Noble Classics, 2003, ISBN 1-59308-051-4: "the key fiction of the Divine Comedy is that the poem is true." ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, Hell, notes on page 19. ^ Charles Allen Dinsmore, The Teachings of Dante, Ayer Publishing, 1970, p. 38, ISBN 0-8369-5521-8. ^ The Fordham Monthly Fordham University, Vol. XL, Dec. 1921, p. 76 ^ Approaches to teaching Dante's Divine comedy. Slade, Carole., Cecchetti, Giovanni, 1922–1998. New York: Modern Language Association of America. 1982. ISBN 978-0-87352-478-0. OCLC 7671339. ^ Ronnie H. Terpening, Lodovico Dolce, Renaissance Man of Letters (Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press, 1997), p. 166. ^ Dante The Inferno A Verse Translation by Professor Robert and Jean Hollander p. 43 ^ Epist. XIII 43 to 48 ^ Wilkins E.H The Prologue to the Divine Comedy Annual Report of the Dante Society, pp. 1–7. ^ Regan, Richard. "Shakespearean comedy" ^ Wheeler, R. Mortimer (1911). "Punch (puppet)" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 648–649. ^ a b "Punch and Judy around the world". The Telegraph. 11 June 2015. ^ "Mr Punch celebrates 350 years of puppet anarchy". BBC. 11 June 2015. ^ Jeffrey Richards (2014). "The Golden Age of Pantomime: Slapstick, Spectacle and Subversion in Victorian England". I.B.Tauris, ^ a b McCabe, John. "Comedy World of Stan Laurel". p. 143. London: Robson Books, 2005, First edition 1975 ^ Burton, Alan (2000). Pimple, pranks & pratfalls: British film comedy before 1930. Flicks Books. p. 51. ^ J. P. Gallagher (1971). "Fred Karno: master of mirth and tears". p. 165. Hale. ^ a b Stockwell, Peter (2016-11-01). The Language of Surrealism. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-137-39219-0. ^ Lear, Edward (2004-10-08). Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabets. ^ Buelens, Geert; Hendrix, Harald; Jansen, Monica, eds. (2012). The History of Futurism: The Precursors, Protagonists, and Legacies. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-7387-9. ^ Gayford, Martin (16 February 2008). "Duchamp's Fountain: The practical joke that launched an artistic revolution". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 February 2017. ^ Meacham, Steve (2010-09-15). "Absurd moments: in the frocks of the dame". Brisbanetimes.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-20. ^ Robert Barton, Annie McGregor (2014-01-03). Theatre in Your Life. CengageBrain. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-285-46348-3. ^ "An impolite interview with Lenny Bruce". The Realist (15): 3. February 1960. Retrieved 2011-12-30. ^ Meredith, George (1987). "Essay on Comedy, Comic Spirit". Encyclopedia of the Self, by Mark Zimmerman. Retrieved 2011-12-30. ^ "The Comic Frame". newantichoicerhetoric.web.unc.edu. ^ "Standing Up for Comedy: Kenneth Burke and The Office – KB Journal". www.kbjournal.org. ^ "History – School of Humanities and Sciences". www.ithaca.edu. Ithaca College. ^ Trischa Goodnow Knapp (2011). The Daily Show and Rhetoric: Arguments, Issues, and Strategies. p. 327. Lexington Books, 2011 ^ This list was compiled with reference to The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (1998). Notations Edit
Aristotle. Poetics. Buckham, Philip Wentworth (1827). Theatre of the Greeks. Marteinson, Peter (2006). On the Problem of the Comic: A Philosophical Study on the Origins of Laughter. Ottawa: Legas Press. http://french.chass.utoronto.ca/as-sa/editors/origins.html Pickard-Cambridge, Sir Arthur Wallace Dithyramb, Tragedy, and Comedy , 1927. The Theatre of Dionysus in Athens, 1946. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 1953. Raskin, Victor (1985). The Semantic Mechanisms of Humor. Springer. ISBN 978-90-277-1821-1. Riu, Xavier (1999). "Dionysism and Comedy". Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (2003). Tragedy and Athenian Religion. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-0400-2. Trypanis, C.A. (1981). Greek Poetry from Homer to Seferis. University of Chicago Press. Wiles, David (1991). The Masked Menander: Sign and Meaning in Greek and Roman Performance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40135-7. Further reading Edit
Comedy at Curlie A Vocabulary for Comedy (definitions are taken from Harmon, William & C. Hugh Holman. A Handbook to Literature. 7th ed.) External links Edit
Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Comedy. Learning materials related to Collaborative play writing at Wikiversity Comedy at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Last edited 9 days ago by TheUnbeholden RELATED ARTICLES Comic timing the use of timing to enhance a comedic purpose Old Comedy earliest period of ancient Greek comedic drama Comedy (drama) theatrical genre intended to make an audience laugh Wikipedia
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2019.04.08 23:00 aisle_kay A Brief Courtship

The room was what I expected: cramped and cheerless, but, in all the ways that matter, basically adequate. Or, as the flickering marquee in front of the motel put it:
DOORS LOCK
WATER HEATS UP
AC BLOWS COLD
LOW $
The wall behind the headboard was covered by one big, insufficiently-Windexed mirror and there was something faintly hallucinogenic about the bedspread, but otherwise there was really nothing – at least at a glance – that meaningfully distinguished this cheap motel room from the however-many thousands of other, similarly cheap motel rooms littering the North American continent.
I shot the bolt and sighed with frustration at the state of my life, but also with relief, because I had shelter for the night. Then I released my grip on the bucket bag containing most of my earthly possessions and collapsed to the bed.
My cellphone started ringing. I fished it out of my pocket, looked at the screen and sighed again. My sister.
“Hey Monica,” I answered.
Where was I now? Who was I with? Or was I all alone? Was I safe? Not even a hello.
“I’m fine,” I said. “Just tired.”
Would I please consider coming to Chicago to stay with her and Tom and their two girls for a while? Just until I got back on my feet. Though I could stay as long as I wanted, of course. But would I just think about it?
I didn’t respond. I just let the silence stretch out and grow languid.
When Monica spoke again her voice was crackly and defeated. I knew she loved me, right? And I would call her soon, right? My answers were mumbled and monosyllabic.
“And eat somewhere besides a gas station tonight,” she said, apropos of nothing, and then we hung up.
I glanced at the bedside clock. 3:56 in the afternoon. I drug a pillow under my neck. Sleep came abruptly, like a power outage.

Monica had had a hysterectomy two months earlier, and yet, in my dream, she was giving birth to a third child.
A party broke out in the delivery room. Friends and family lit cigars and poured scotch, laughed and cheered, jostled and glad-handed, while, in the middle of it all, a doctor and nurses huddled around my sister, prepared to receive whatever impossible thing she was pushing through her birth canal.
I worked my way through the crowd.
I said, “Monica, you bitch, you don’t have a uterus.”
Monica said, “Why can’t you just be happy for me?”
I said, “It’s always gotta be about you, doesn’t it?”
The doctor said, “It’s crowning.”
I reached her bedside. Monica bit down hard on her lip and turned to look at me. Her face filled with tears. I took her hand.
“Tom always wanted a boy,” she said.
“This isn’t possible,” I said, “you don’t have a womb.”
“Oh dear,” a nurse said, “would you give it a rest?”
“Here it comes,” the doctor said.
Monica screamed, and I rolled over and woke up.

I stepped outside for a cigarette. Night had fallen. The moon looked like a giant toenail clipping that had gotten stuck in the firmament. Besides my car the parking lot was empty. Across the lot from me, beneath the toenail moon, was another strip of rooms. I lit up and inhaled.
There came a quick, sharp sound like scissors through paper, and then a low, prolonged creak. A foot-wide band of darkness appeared in the door directly across the lot from me – room 206 – and out of that darkness emerged an adult-sized head, disembodied, hovering too close to the ground. The head hawked a yellow loogie out onto the sidewalk and then levitated upward until it approached an average human height. Once its full length locked into place, other parts of the body peeked out of the shadows – pieces of arm, thigh, shin – enough to establish that it was entirely naked.
I averted my gaze, but then, not being able to help myself, allowed it to creep back. The body had retreated into the dark, and now, as before, only the head was in view. The eyes were looking right at me. The left one winked. A grin deformed the face. But then the head began to levitate again, to tilt slightly sideways and drift toward the ceiling like a balloon, and the grin dissolved. The brow furrowed and the eyes filled with concern. A hand shot out of the dark and hooked an index finger over the bottom lip, then slowly pulled the head back down toward the unseen body. A second hand appeared, and, together with the first hand, participated in a pantomime of knot-tying at a spot in the dark a few inches below the chin. The face wore an expression of deep interest as it craned downward to scrutinize the work of the hands. Once the head was re-secured the face broke out into a big smile and the two hands separated and disappeared into the dark, only to both reemerge a second later, palms out, as if to say, “Ta-da!”
I gave a polite golf clap.
The hands sunk again into the dark. The face grew solemn. It seemed the show was over. But then, about two feet below the chin, a dimpled strip of lower back emerged, followed closely by a pair of pale ass cheeks. The parking lot took a deep, empty breath. The ass cheeks proceeded to dance, to twitch, to bounce, to shimmy and shake and move side-to-side, to wax and wane in and out of the surrounding darkness, while, throughout the whole performance, the face floated above, fixed in place, its expression passive except for the eyebrows, which flapped suggestively over the bridge of the nose.
After a minute or so, the booty-shaking stopped. The parking lot exhaled. The ass cheeks retreated from view, and the face soon followed. The foot-wide band of darkness between the door and its frame was now just that – darkness. The whole body was gone. I took a final drag on my cigarette, flicked it at the moon, and turned to go inside.
Psst,” someone hissed, from across the lot. I turned back.
A lone hand protruded from the dark inside room 206. The index finger gesticulated, beckoning me over.
I reentered my room and locked the door, but then, in fit of paranoia, reopened the door and peered out. The door to 206 was now shut. I pinched the skin on my arm until it hurt, then closed and locked the door again and climbed back into bed.

I dreamt I was present for some sort of ritual around a bonfire, as part of which I voluntarily mated with a peacock, and then I awoke with an overwhelming urge to grab my stuff and go, but found that I couldn’t move, and that there was a skinny old hag in a hospital gown standing at the foot of my bed. On the carpet between her feet was my bucket bag. Something thrashed around within it, struggling to tear free.
I blinked to see if that would make it all go away, but when I reopened my eyes the old hag had only changed position. Now she was crawling silently across the drapes like a spider.
Blink. Old hag hanging from the ceiling. Blink. Old hag crouched on the bedspread. Blink. Old hag’s face, inches from mine.
I gasped. Her knees were pressing on my lungs, and I felt cool water leaking out of her and soaking through the sheets.
Her breath was cloying. Something thick and sticky, like syrup, hung in webs from the blackened stumps of her teeth.
This was no old hag, I now saw. This was my sister, Monica. And not just Monica, but the Monica from my earlier dream, reconfigured into something monstrous. I stared into her eyes, but they weren’t her eyes. The eyes alone belonged to someone else.
Monica pursed her festering lips. Her baggy throat began to undulate and there was a sound like water rushing through loose pipes, and then, suddenly, she spit: she spit right into my mouth.

I sat up shaking and understood that I was alone. The room was undisturbed, but, for what was likely the first time since early childhood, I had wet the bed.
At some point during the process of stripping off my soiled clothes, I burst into tears. I stopped to stare at my shivering, half-naked reflection in the wall-sized mirror.
“What is wrong with you,” I asked.
Something thumped against the door.
I wiped my tears and shuffled over to peer through the peephole. There was nobody out there. I unlocked the door and eased it open so that I could scan the whole parking lot. Still nothing.
Then I happened to glance down at my feet. There was a Bible on the sidewalk. A Gideon Bible. The type you find in motel room drawers. I picked it up and closed the door.
This Bible had been through hell. The cover was scratched and wrinkled, and, with the notable exception of Revelations, the whole New Testament had been ripped from the spine.
I flipped through Genesis. Some pages were scribbled on. Words, in large print. Fairly impressive drawings.
The first drawing was of a large, swollen, planet-sized breast with a smaller, satellite breast orbiting it. An engorged dick-and-balls rocketed from the dark side of the small breast, toward the larger one. The background was a dense black crosshatch dotted with distant stars.
Above the drawing was the following sentence: UR NOT GETTIN ANY YOUNGER U KNOW.
The second drawing was of a bunch of grapes. Below it was the same word, written three times: BEGET BEGET BEGET.
The third drawing was of even more grapes, followed by another BEGET BEGET BEGET.
The fourth drawing was of a still bigger pile of grapes. BEGET BEGET BEGET.
The fifth drawing was of a human head with an octopus body, except, instead of tentacles, the head had eight long, floppy, mushroom-headed cocks snaking from it. Like the first drawing, most of the surrounding page had been covered in a dense crosshatch of black ink, but there were no stars; rather, it appeared that the human/penis-hybrid was floating in a deep dark sea.
Body parts were piled on the sea floor. Detached legs and arms, a torso with a neck but no head. Below the drawing: UR NO FUCKIN PRIZE URSELF.

The room phone rang.
I lifted the phone out of its cradle and pressed it against my ear and, for a few seconds, listened to the heavy breathing at the other end of the line.
Finally I said, “hello?”
Plastic popping. A whirring sound. Two clicks. A cassette tape started.
Hola,” said a male voice, in an uninflected American accent, from within a bed of static. “Hello or ‘Hi there.”
I said, “is this 206?”
A short whir, an eager click. “Si,” said the voice on the cassette tape. “Yes.”
I said, “did you throw this Bible?”
A brief silence and then, eventually, another short whir and a click. “Si,” the tape repeated. “Yes.”
I said, “why?”
A series of clicks and whirs and snippets of Spanish and then another whir and another click. “Ven aqui, nena,” said the voice on the tape. “Come here, baby.”
I said, “why?”
A pause, the briefest of whirs, a click. “Come here, baby,” the tape repeated.
I said, “why?”
Click. Whir. Click. “Come here, baby.”
I said, “no.”
I heard heavy breathing again. It intensified, became frustrated and frantic, and then exploded into an inhuman shriek, intermixed with something being smashed or slammed repeatedly, which gave way to a brief snatch of recorded Spanish that was swiftly garbled up by a loud and crescendoing whir, followed by another brisk series of smashing sounds and then, finally, silence.

I hung up and changed clothes and headed for the exit, bag-in-hand. After a few deep breaths I opened the door.
The parking lot felt like a basin of the sky, cold and empty and dark, and the only sound was the clack of my heels across its pavement.
I didn’t look around; I just kept my eyes focused on my car’s driver-side door until I found myself standing next to it.
I got in the car and got it cranked and backed it out of the parking space, then pulled it up flush with the check-in/check-out window.
I stared through the glass, into the office. Another big box of darkness, that’s all it was. If there was anyone inside there, I couldn’t see them.
I reached over and rolled down my passenger-side window and shot my room key through the little half-circle transaction hole at the bottom of the glass.
Then I was off.

I drove for about an hour, chain-smoking, watching the scenery eat away at itself, until I found myself speeding through desert. I had vague notions of Vegas. It was some number of miles in this direction. There was nowhere else to go, so, I thought, why not go there?
But then, at some point, I looked out through my windshield and saw brake lights multiplying. Traffic through the desert came to a standstill. Cars squeaked up behind me and idled away in front of me. Maybe there had been a wreck, or active construction, or who-knows-what, but I never found out. I had to pull off the road. And when, an hour later, I got back on the road, though the traffic toward Vegas had cleared, I was headed the other direction, back the way I came.

I had to get off the road because, out of nowhere, I started to feel really sick: severe indigestion and bloating, and, sloshing between them, a kind of tidal nausea – a queasy wave that pulled away into my throat only to return to my stomach, redoubled, every other minute or so. I saw the need for a bathroom in my future.
Luckily there was a gas station. I could see it up ahead, set back a little off the right shoulder of the road, pressed into the silhouette of some semi-distant rock formation, a tiny glowing pool within all that dark, resembling, from that range, and in its lonesome floodlit effulgence, a kind of heavily-trafficked lunar outpost.
I edged my car off onto the shoulder and then gradually built speed toward the parking lot entrance. Someone honked their outrage at me. I waved a weak apology.
The parking lot was very large and very busy. Cars crammed in and squeezed out. There must have been at least forty pumps, all in use, and all encircled by still more cars, lying in wait. Everything about the place seemed to imply that if you didn’t stop to get gas here you’d better be prepared to drive fifty or sixty miles before you saw another opportunity – there may have even been a billboard to that effect.
I parked in a far corner of the lot, near two idling tour buses. The warm rumble of their engines was like the contented purring of two gigantic cats. I was so tired. Maybe if I could just sleep, if I could just take a short nap, the sickness would be gone when I woke up. I let my seat back, closed my eyes, handed my body over to the gentle vibration, felt hidden parts of myself unclutching, felt something shake loose in my stomach and press against the bottom of my esophagus.
I opened my driver-side door and swung my legs out and stared at the concrete under my feet, waiting for the vomit to come. Saliva coated my mouth in anticipation of the big event, but, after a minute or two, I found I was still waiting. I breathed deep and sat there, indecisive, while slowly, as if in increments, the discomfort migrated south, back to my stomach. The spectre of diarrhea rose up and hovered definitively before me.
I have to get to a bathroom now.
I clutched at my roiling stomach and started haltingly across the lot. As I passed I got a better look at the two tour buses. They both had giant billowing American flags painted on their sides, and, in the rippled blue rectangle where the stars would normally be, blocky white words in all caps: TOUR AMERICANA. In both their windshields were white placards emblazoned with big black Chinese characters. I happened to meet the gaze of one of the drivers; she glanced up from her crossword puzzle and, evidently noticing my hunched condition, seemed to be trying on a series of facial expressions that, taken together, were meant to convey her deepest sympathies.
When I got inside the gas station I understood why: across the aisles I saw a single fingerprint-smeared door marked BATHROOM and, stretching back from it, an enormous snaking line comprised mostly of Chinese tourists.
I stepped up to the back of the line. What choice do I have? Sweat beaded on my neck, my palms, under my arms. Too many people; I won’t make it. My throat was disconcertingly dry. Can’t deal with all this; all these people. I realized I could smell my own breath: it was sour. Can they smell it too? My eardrums hurt; my forehead throbbed. All this noise; this incomprehensible chatter.Are they talking about me?*About my sour breath?*It felt like my intestines were rolling themselves up, retracting like a long sloppy hose. It’s about to come out of you, right down the back of your legs, right here in front of all these people.
No. Pull it together. Calm down. Breathe. Look around. Distract yourself.
A gawky, long-limbed teenager in a too-big, faded HARD ROCK BEIJING t-shirt debated candy choices with a stoop-shouldered grandfatherly-type. An exhausted-looking woman wearing a fanny pack rotated a sunglasses display noncommittally. Three giggling little girls darted through the automatic doors, out into the brightly-lit pumping area, past a middle-aged white guy on crutches, who hobbled up out of the night with a cellphone pinched between his left ear and shoulder.
Crutches guy got in line behind me and said, “Bob, Bob, Bob, no, Bob, no, now Bob, Bob listen—”
I sneezed. My sphincter clinched, releasing a terse, semi-audible puff of gas. There was an elderly Chinese woman in line in front of me who was – for some reason – wearing one of those green eyeshade visors common to old-timey accountants and telegraph operators; she half-turned, smiling, and gave me a friendly nod, either as a kind of nonverbal gesundheit or because she heard me fart and decided it was less awkward to acknowledge it than to pretend she hadn’t. Regardless, I had to admit to myself that I felt a little better. But then the elderly lady did a doubletake; she was looking at me again, cocking her head back to scrutinize a spot just below my right nostril. She gestured and spoke words I didn’t understand, then, without turning, began to tug on the sleeve of the lady in front of her with evident urgency.
I raised my hand toward my right nostril and caught my index finger on something sharp. I looked: the tip of my finger was bleeding. I sucked blood from the wound and brought my fingers back up to feel of the offending object: thin and inflexible and spiked with sharp prickles, very much like the stem of a rose. I started to pull on it.
The lady in front of the elderly woman – who must have been the elderly woman’s daughter – finally turned. She inhaled sharply and her jaw fell open and her left hand – which had been resting on the shoulder of a child in front of her – leapt to cover the lower half of her face. The child turned too, but didn’t seem nearly as surprised by what she found.
I kept pulling. The prickles were ripping at my sinuses. I could taste blood at the back of my throat, feel it running over my lips, dripping off my chin. But the thing had to come out: I screamed and howled and yanked until I wrenched it free of my face. Then I looked, panting, at what I had gripped in my quivering hand: yes, a rose. A white rose entwined with thin, slimy strands of blood.
The guy behind me said, “I gotta hang up, Bob.”
There was a small, bloodstained piece of paper curled near the base of the flower. I unraveled it from the stem. It just said WIT LUV.
My stomach made the sucking, suctioning sound of a suddenly-unclogged drain. A sensation ripped through my belly like a hundred tiny, acidic bombs going off; and shot up through my esophagus, sending me – vomiting – to my hands and knees.
Four or five heaves and it was all pumped out of me and onto the gas station ceramic; all except for one last long bulbous strand which, in the end, I had to reach into my mouth for, and, with slippery fingers, pull up out of my throat. I coughed and hacked and tried to look at what I was holding: I couldn’t see it. All the vomiting made my eyes teary. There was only a vague impression, a suggestion of color, like wisteria through a wet windowpane. I let it drop to the floor.
All was motionless around me. The gas station had gone quiet except for some desperate voice, somewhere in the crowd, praying in Spanish.
I wiped my eyes carefully with my sleeve and looked again: grapes.
Grapes in big, immaculate bunches. Each individual grape a plump, perfect sphere. Every single one a deep, frosty purple. In the blinking fluorescent they seemed to pulse, to throb with inner life.
A sparkling liquid bubbled and dripped off the grapes, forming a fizzy gold puddle on the ceramic tile; I could taste it on my lips: champagne.
“Ma’am,” the guy behind me ventured. “Ma’am, are you okay?”
Little constellations of chatter and restless motion flared up throughout the gas station.
Someone said, “should somebody call an ambulance?”
I stretched my hand out toward the grapes.
An anticipatory groan trembled through the building.
I plucked one: the pull and release, the tension between the grape and its stem, was exquisite.
An opening formed in the crowd before me: a cleaning cart on squeaky casters rolled through, pushed by a teenager wearing a nametag: Josh. On Josh’s cart was a mop bucket, a wet floor sign, a broom and a dustpan.
“No,” I said. “Don’t. They’re—”
I placed that first perfect purple bulb between my teeth.
Someone gasped.
My jaw clicked painfully, but that crisp snap as I plucked the grapes, the feel of their skin between my teeth, the eruption of their inner juices on my tongue… I couldn’t stop cramming them in my mouth.
“—they’re for me.”
submitted by aisle_kay to nosleep [link] [comments]


2019.04.04 13:48 betsyforhope The Invisible Green Book

Of the wild magnolia, mother of many soldiers
We live by every single word she ever told us
Watch over your shoulders
And keep a tin of beans for when the weather turn the coldest
The Lord is our shepherd, so our cup runneth over
Put your trust in the Lord, but tether your Chevy Nova
I’m spittin' this shit for closure
This should be fairly quick but it's not going to be painless. It's gonna be shaving against the grain on a dry run. But instead of the grain being your skin, it's logic and the razor is toxic and contaminated bullshit frozen and sharpened into an edge. This doesn't sound pleasant at all and if you take it seriously, you're likely to become dumber. Even the false sense of pleasure experienced by the masochists doesn't justify putting yourself through what follows since any lasting impact will not be pain but numbness from the contamination.
What follows is easy because it connects four broad concepts. In themselves they're not broad but I'm oversimplifying and distorting them so much, that they become broad. In the process these wonderful, unique original, and powerful thoughts lose all their intellectual value. So really all that follows is meaningless, as well. But I'll provide links and they haven't been distorted.
The Four Concept are:
  • Slavoj Zizek's Desert of the Real
  • Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man
  • Herd Mentality
  • I forgot the fourth one
  • Work Cited
Here's the stuff I'll be thinking about in the background and sometimes say outright but just to provide you a bit of the spices inside this gumbo. See all these words, the ones here you've read and haven't read, were conjured up together. In this process of conjuring, you start with the first paragraph and go from there. But each word sews together one singular piece of writing; one holistic structure that was built precisely because of the the message it carries. To reach this structure, certain reactions had to happen. It's like chemistry. You can only get the results you want and the chemical reactions you want if structure the process as a sequence of events jusssssst right.
Outside this piece of writing, all these words grow wild in meaning; influenced by the reaction they're a part of. Meaning that each brain that encounter these words will have a previous singular experience that provides the environment for these words to grow. As these words grow and latch on to your experience, you experience a different state of being as each element plays a role in re-calibrating and re-imagining the experience you become a part of.
The phenomena itself hosts a physical twisting similar to the illusion of the Sun revolving around the Earth. You can't really tell if the Earth or the Sun revolves around the other unless you have jussssst the right point of view. If your starting point is such, you end up with the view that the Sun revolves around the Earth or vice versa. The twisting occurs when you decidedly take a position to defend. The same way, each of these words weigh the same. Their only value is how they grow as part of your ideology; how your ideology structures the word and how the word restructures your ideology. It's just only one singular phenomena but it's a sort of dual effect that twist in such a way that it makes it seem like it's two different phenomena. Like the two theories regarding whether the Sun revolves around the Earth or vice versa. Both theories contain mathematical formulae that can be used to make predictions and validate the beliefs they support but the formulae are talking over one another since its the same elements being validates. The only difference is that the validation is supporting two different, contradictory structures. Everything else stays the same. So hopefully you see how the validity of each of these words, being spiced a certain way and meant to be structured a certain way, are interwoven with the below formulae:
The question then becomes how obvious the taste is. If you're not aware of what I mean already, how do can you sense it? How does ideology work in this regard? If we all take a bite from the same apple, we're all experiencing one single holistic phenomena. But we each encounter these words as individual ideological structures; the same way we approach granola bars as individual biological structures.
We, as individuals, in turn, create a holistic ideology by which to interpret phenomena and we influence each other in this creation, participate in this creation, and are a part of this creation insofar as the makeup of the structure constitutes the reaction of other people. You as a participant play a role in determining what the final structure looks like but this still doesn't satisfy our curiosity regarding what does it mean to lend support and positive reinforcement to a structure.
To become one thing together in a group. For individuals to come together and makeup one thing, without cynicism, but in positivity is an aesthetic function. Which should put into perspective logic and rationality while putting them where they belong; in the back of your mind. The logical is trivial when it comes to taste; experience is already built on a logical structure before you experience so you don't have to worry about it.
Herd mentality:
Herd mentality, mob mentality and pack mentality, also lesser known as gang mentality, describes how people can be influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors on a largely emotional, rather than rational, basis. When individuals are affected by mob mentality, they may make different decisions than they would have individually.
Alright so it's like a Chinese finger trap. if you approach certain topics as suspect, the person you're talking to you will likely pull from you because they don't want to encourage part of your agenda. But if you sneak up on them before they can pull up a struggle, they'll just admit the truth.
So here again we see the trivial structure or rationality and logic. It's the barebone of mentality. You have mentality. Thus you have a structure of rationality and logic inherent in the processing of emotions. But what emotions are processed are of a different matter; actually it's the only matter that matters.
Thus we can say that there are many herds. Many groups. In whatever civilization you can think of, you have young ones and older ones, different skills and workers possessed by different people and groups, and so on and so forth.
Within electricians, they have a common vocabulary and understanding. Between electricians, trivial and non-trivial is strictly defined because they have a similar appreciation for the tasks and problems they face. Again, the value of appreciation is tightly associated with the aesthetics. Not with the logical or rational; the logical and rational are appreciated a certain way but this appreciation is also founded on aesthetics.
A useful example is the chicken or the egg. There's a feedback loop between eggs and chickens. One of those things had to come first but whatever came first only comes a second time around because of the positive reinforcement made by the chicken. It's a moot point when talking about systems to argue in favor of the foundation while trivializing the second input that allows the first phenomena to repeat.
How this relates to consciousness is complicated but we think that our DNA gnaws with its teeth whatever ground it can grip and that from this gripping, we move through time. Somehow our consciousness rises in the east and sets in the west, leaving us to think that we're calculating the universe revolving around us; but we could very well be revolving around something else and using faulty foundations to begin our endeavor. Regardless, the nontrivial aspect is that the foundation dictates where we go:
Freedom is the freedom to say that 2+2=4"
  • George Orwell
The Stone Wall is one of the symbols in the novel and represents all the barriers of the laws of nature that stand against man and his freedom. Put simply, the rule 2+2=4 angers the Underground Man because he wants the freedom to say 2+2=5, but that Stone Wall of nature's laws stands in front of him and his free will.
So from the foundation based on the members, the mentality of the herd arises as it's interwoven together in time as the members of the herd congregate and create a confluence of culture.
You as a member have to alter and contort yourself to restructure the mentality that you are a part of. Now you may go walking around with a gun and just shooting everyone you don't like that's part of the herd but even this action starts with you first restructuring your own body and mind each passing moment so that what you want to achieve is achieved.
The question of power and freedom
(So I googled Invisible Man and Notes from the Underground and they said the theme of them was power and freedom; so I'm restructuring what I'm about to write to incorporate these terms. Now I'm not using glue or concrete to stick em up here; I'm using spit and bullshit. I haven't actually read the books)
Thus the question of power and freedom or rather the existential question of playing a part in determining who you are is framed in such a way that your actions and the conclusions that you accept all influence the actual bending and contorting that you are seen doing in the restructuring of the Reality we all share.
So to answer these question, we're going to delve into this movie: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt6966692/ There will be spoilers so forewarned. Also, I watched the movie once like a few months ago. So I may be remembering wrong. Also, it's based on a book I haven't read. So bare with me.
So the, uhh, the movie is about a famous and accomplished musician. He's recognized for his genius by all the people that matter. However, as a black man in the 1950s-1960s, the protagonist genius is stereotyped because a genius accomplished musician cannot exist within the Americana herd mentality during this time because members of this herd mentality had established as a foundation that a person of black heritage is limited as human in terms of dignity and respect. Since this person was black they couldn't be acknowledged as something because that contradicted the foundation of the mentality's structure.
Now please appreciate this. Humans evolved and emerged on earth and this created a network of impressions that contributed to a herd culture that permitted certain members but excluded others.
In 1600s, these herds created a gumbo in America with American natives, Africans and Europeans. Now what does it mean to be a Native. and of African descent in a herd where the Europeans have an over-empowering say? How do you silence the native and African blood? Or how do you get heard as a native or of African descent? Was it is like to be heard in the language they speak?
See, before we were talking about how words as elements are incorporated for their meaning and their influence is restructuring meaning. But now we're talking about people. Same thing.
Now Ralph Ellison writing around the same period (1940s-1950s) wrote of a black invisible man. This black man wasn't of the same genius as the protagonist in Green Book (Don Shirley). The invisible man is invisible from the gaze of the Americana herd mentality.
You cannot speak with this 1960s Americana herd mentality precisely because of its dog whistle irony. The herd mentality knows how to change tones and protect its environment through deception and living in bad faith. Other countries might love their blue collar workers or farmers but 1960s Americana herd mentality lies about its own blue collar workers and farmers. The people the moved the Earth that shaped this country were often time people of color. Cowboys as an Americana identity constituted a significant number of black and brown people but in their songs, books and movies, the Americana herd mentality replaces these heroes and forefathers as purely white. You can't talk about truth and honesty as far as the 1960s Americana herd mentality refuses to see its members as equals.
For example, you have the emergence in the 1910-1920s of Tulsa, Arizona; of a prominent black community that started earning the name "black wall street." This new member-group inside the Americana herd mentality was an offense to the people's that had the final say in the matter. And these people bombed Tulsa, attacking fellow American citizens that were working and investing in the betterment of an American community. This 1920's Americana herd mentality, with the help of the US government, killed innocent people because the re-structuring of the Americana herd mentality that was taking place was offensive.
Ok, I said I didn't read anything I'm citing here but I actually read part of the Invisible Man when I was in college. The Invisible Man got in trouble one time because he told the truth early on. He made other black people look bad because the Invisible Man was honest with a white man. This is, again, the aspect of the herd mentality that sidesteps rationality and logic. The value of emotions is based on pretense and prejudice that acts as the foundation for the development of a herd mentality.
The Invisible Man has to play a nontrivial role in how he is seen. Because if he's seen in the wrong light, he's offed (like we saw in the Tulsa massacre and the time he got in trouble with the college president for telling the truth to a white man).
Also, I just stole this from wikipedia:
At an emergency meeting, Jack and the other Brotherhood leaders criticize the narrator for his unscientific arguments and the narrator determines that the group has no real interest in the black community's problems.
This topic again talks about the trivial structure of rationality and logic in the the evaluation of the aesthetics. The Brotherhood, blinded by their ideology, require everything else to abide by the ideology. See, this is a thing of beauty because it fits my narrative perfectly. You see what happens when you worship the one true God of bullshit? You never run out. God just keeps providing; handing you all the bullshit you need. We just have to be grateful and welcome the bullshit with open arms.
So Dr Shirley (the protagonist from Green Book) was in a position similar to the Invisible Man. How Dr Shirley tries to be seen is what the movie is all about. How Dr Shirley wants to present himself to the world is not the only issue. This goes back to the chicken and the egg. Dr Shirley wants to be received a certain way so Dir Shirley has to carry himself a certain way.
Just carrying himself as a response to the existential question of "Who Am I?" poses the question to the society he finds himself in. Thus, by his actions, Dr. Shirley creates a pressure in the society he found himself in (the American South in the 60s) to respond. The response the society gives encourages how Dr. Shirley, in turn, reacts. This feedback loop goes back and forth.
Another example would be trolls on the internet. They want to engage with you to create a feedback loop. Thus they throw bait to engage you into this back and forth. That's why they say don't feed the trolls. But Dr. Shirley wasn't throwing bait to troll. He was throwing bait to create a back and forth that ended with convincing everyone around him of his own genius.
It's not known why he wanted to travel in the American South in the 60s but there's a scene in the movie where it's revealed that Dr. Shirley could have been paid more money if he stayed in the city. Once can assume, I think, that he wanted to make a social impact of sorts.
We see this when Dr. Shirley, in the movie, goes to a motel and sits outside his room. He watches a black family (or a number of different black families congregating together) play some basketball and just hang around the motel they're staying at. The black family encourages Dr. Shirley to give them a response they're familiar with. I forgot what it was. Now in this instance the scene is setup so that Dr Shirley seems to not relate with the black family. Dr Shirley didn't want to encourage certain behaviors and he did this by carrying himself differently and guided by a set of different beliefs.
We then see Dr. Shirley go to a white bar where he's not even given a chance to participate as a member of the herd. His very existence threatens the mentality of the herd and the white racists attack him. It's at this time that Dr. Shirley's chauffeur (who is a white Italian man from New York) goes into the Southern bar and sort of rescues Dr. Shirley. Now I've heard some criticism about this scene because I've heard say that the scene plays into the stereotype that a black man must always be saved by a gracious white man. That, I think is a whole different conversation so going forward I'm going to take the scene in a different light; albeit more out there.
The thing about Dr. Shirley is that he goes into the bar with some expectation of issues. Dr. Shirley is aware that in his musical tour, he's going through racist territories where the herd mentality that exists is very much against the safety of black men. And Dr Shirley goes in the bar defenseless. He doesn't want to fight. He's taking his own existential identity and his own ideals into the bar and he highlights the very logical and rational structure that's we're trying to trivialize.
This relates to another phenomena I like and that's this.
  1. You have an ideology
  2. This is proven by the self validation of (1) and (2)
  3. There has to be a 4th thing to explain this but we only have three.
Thus, there is a black hole between 1-3 where a system process takes place and on the other side is meaning and ideology. This also relates to brain in the vat. 200 million years could happen between one blink of the eyes and you can only know if there's proof. This black hole also exist between each moment we experience. Thus our actions, to a degree, are always taking a leap into circumstances we can only validate once they have happened; and thus can only be reasonably appreciated aesthetically since it would be impossible to evaluate logically.
Dr Shirley proves that the hatred in the racist Southern people's heart isn't based on the black man as a legitimate threat or as a danger. What makes Dr. Shirley such a disagreeable person to these people is the color of his skin. All other factors have been removed. I don't really know what I have here but it's a point worth making. Although it's important to note that Dr. Shirley wasn't dumb. He knew his action were controversial and puzzling to the well-known racist south, but he was fine with creating this puzzlement for the the south to respond. Since the south is a composition phenomena and made up of discrete human elements, its activation through activism creates a reactionary environment where stars collide, hydrogen becomes helium, new elements emerge and new societal structures form from the feedback loop that the activism starts.
Now think of all this as a very groundbreaking proof which might seem trite at this point. But it's still a problem so it can't be trite. All other factors being remove, you don't establish just an identity. Once you establish an identity, you can establish a formula. And once you establish a formula, you can create an axiom. And once you create an axiom, you can create an ideology.
Like the chicken and the egg, ideology comes first. You think this isn't the case but this belief is only positively reinforced by your belief that your starting point is identity and identity cannot be the starting point; that's absurd. Thus, QED, pro bono publico, your ideology comes first.
Something isn't is because it is. It is because something else is. Or rather, this is precisely why ideology comes first.
Thus your ideology, seemingly and bizarrely like everything else in the universe, is a somewhat reinforced feedback loop that becomes molded through a confluence of incidents. Or rather, it looks like incidents to us. See we can only make sense of the world if we create a composition of all our senses necessarily existing in a perceived state. It's the only way there can be such a moment where, at the moment of saying "I exist," there is a phenomena associated with this utterance, a reaction, that gives the phrase "life."
Part of this composition is a lasting effect that we suppose inanimate bodies do not have. This effect we call experience. We each experience something. The scientific question whether all this is something associated with physical chemical reactions or there's something else in between doesn't seem to be answerable. On top of that, a lot of smart neuroscientists can describe matters of awareness in scientific, chemical terms. So it doesn't really seem like there's something else in between.
Regardless, whatever the culmination, it seems to be a piece of a puzzle. Physical or metaphysical, it seems that we just fit right in.
You can't do wrong. You can't do good. You can't do anything outside of our appreciation of the aesthetic.
Whatever you do, the universe is cool with it. I mean, you get your jaw broken by a mule, but that's just the universe being cool with it.
Somehow it seems that our reaction, our experience, our contortion of Reality as we move things around it, brings back like a wave what our reaction, experience, contortion meant. Again the feedback loop.
So our actions, even without regarding the starting points or end, give us back an answer.
Sometimes we twist it around and act in order to get the answer we want, but still our actions are leap towards a future that seems to come in pieces.
And so if you're street smart, you act a certain street smart way. If you're an accountant, you act a certain accountant way. And your action fulfill an ideological goal. Which reinforces the feedback loop.
Dr. Shirley was trying to change the feedback loop through his actions. The same feedback loop that in the previous decade had led the Invisible Man invisible.
People's general reaction to Dr. Shirley was either a bit of a curiosity because others didn't know how to be part of this interaction since it wasn't the familiar feedback loop or they reacted violently because they didn't want any part in this revolution.
In the movie you have the people that want to keep things how they are, people who don't know what to make of it, and then we had the white Italian chauffeur that got to know Dr. Shirley and accept Dr. Shirley for who he was.
Now how the chauffeur accepted Dr. Shirley was by modifying his own behavior. But this was only reactionary to his first re-structuring with regard to his own (the chauffeur's) ideology.
The chauffeur actually first tries to "teach" Dr. Shirley how to be black. This is presumably because the chauffeur has a working definition of what it means to be black in 1960s America. Obviously, Dr. Shirley, somehow relating to the identity of "black" differently than the chauffeur, objects to what the chauffeur thinks it means to be black. Presumably because the chauffeur couldn't define Dr. Shirley. Only Dr. Shirley could have the final say of who Dr. Shirley was.
Throughout the movie, Dr. Shirley's identity (seen through his actions) in this Reality that we all share and persistence of breaking 1960's black stereotypes in front of his eyes compels the chauffeur to respect Dr. Shirley and appreciate him for who he was as an individual. Since identity should always be up to the individual in any society that respects autonomy.
So Dr. Shirley somehow accomplished (if we assume this is what he wanted) what he wanted regarding his trip down south. He encountered backlash but was able to leave an impression on a few people. And so he wasn't invisible. He helped establish new feedback loops and expectations. Although at the risk of not being invisible, Dr. Shirley made himself a target much like the community is Tulsa that was tragically attacked.
Another example of this phenomena is the concept of glass ceilings. And this lends back to the idea that ideology comes first.
Glass ceilings lend to the idea that, in a hierarchy, the most important part is the top. Meaning that the top changes the bottom. At the beginning of this writing I said how this writing is just one holistic thing. That it's interwoven. Doesn't the first thread influence all the threads that come after? But also doesn't each thread strand its own path? And so to reach the top and break the glass ceiling is to reach a level of influence where you can change the whole game.
Or in the example of your ideology, what causes you to have an ego death and re-think all the established values you use to calculate life?
All this is just an example. The gears put into motion is what should be examined. And once you start this examination, you don't see Dr. Shirley or the chauffeur or Tulsa or invisible men. You see logic and rationality. But those things don't matter.
The following lyrics:
Some iffy shit transpire, them guns gon' fire
I never see my reflection, I'm like a vampire
  • Black Though, The New Grit
I once was told to know thy self
How can I grow myself, if I don't know myself?
The low-hangin' fruit for bottom feeders, no top-shelf
I chase demons for a lotta reasons, not just health
  • Black Thought, Soundtrack to Confusion
I heard this lyrics in the backdrop of what I thinking about the Green Book and Invisible Man and it might just be me interpreting the lyrics the way I want to, but Black Thought really highlights the themes I'm talking about.
The first from The New Grit can allude to the fact that when you stare back into the society we're from (America), you don't really see yourself unless you follow a certain narrative. To go against the grain is to create a reflection for the future to reflect on, but this reflection is a direct assault to the 1960s Americana herd mentality. And so the reflections we have from People of Color in America is distorted. Like the re-imagining at the workers of this great nation as just white or whatever. Please note that I think Black Thought actually meant he can't see his reflection because nothing can match his greatness so there's not even a reflection of his being anywhere in this Reality.
Now a lot white casualty aren't racist. I'd imagine most of them. But they find themselves in this structure that helps them if they do something play on dog whistle and belonging to the right 1960s Americana herd mentality. It's a fact of life; something that may be called privilege. Also, this type of discrimination happens around the world and skin color and ethnicity is sometimes substituted for other difference but the general principles stand.
The second line from Soundtrack to Confusion follows the same theme. How are you suppose to reach your potential when you don't have past examples?
I mean, you can try regardless but without a firm grasp in logic and rationality, your actions are going to seem illogical and irrational to outsider who take comfort in bullshit.
submitted by betsyforhope to Blooming [link] [comments]


2018.11.21 06:16 rotoreuters Zbigniew Brzezinski's Geopolitical Strategy For US Global Hegemony

Authored by Vladislav Sotirovic via Oriental Review,
"If we have to use force, it is because we are America.
We are the indispensable nation."
(Madeleine K. Albright, February 1998)

Madam Secretary

As a matter of very fact, regardless to the reality in global politics that the Cold War was over in 1989, Washington continued to drive toward the getting the status of a global hyperpower at any expense for the rest of the world.
The Balkans undoubtedly became the first victim in Europe of the old but aesthetically-repackaged American global imperialism. The US’ administration is a key player during the last 25 years of the Balkan crisis caused by the bloody destruction of ex-Yugoslavia in which Washington played a crucial role in three particular historical cases:
  1. Only due to the US’ administration (more precisely due to the last US’ ambassador to Yugoslavia, Warren Zimmermann), a Bosnian-Herzegovinian President Alija Izetbegović (the author of the 1970 Islamic Declaration) rejected already agreed _Lisbon Agreement_ about peaceful resolution of the Bosnian crises which was signed by the official representatives of the Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks in February 1992. Alija Izetbegović was one of those three signatories. The agreement was reached under the auspices of the European Community (the EC, later the European Union) that was represented by the British diplomat Lord Carrington and the Portuguese ambassador José Cutileiro. However, under the US’ protection, a Bosnian-Herzegovinian Bosniak-Croat Government declared independence on March 3rd, 1992 which local Serbs decisively opposed. Therefore, two warmongers, Warren Zimmermann and Alija Izetbegović pushed Bosnia-Herzegovina into the civil war which stopped only in November 21st, 1995 by signing the _Dayton Accords_ in Ohio (Slobodan Milošević, Bill Clinton, Alija Izetbegović and Franjo Tuđman).
  2. It was exactly the US’ administration which crucially blessed the ethnic cleansing of the Serbs from the Republic of Serbian Krayina committed by Croatia’s police and army forces (including and neo-Nazi Ustashi formations) on August 4−5th, 1995. For the realization of this criminal operation (under the secret code Storm/Oluja) Washington gave to Zagreb all logistic, political, diplomatic and military support. As a consequence, around 250,000 Croatia’s Serbs left their homes in two days which were quickly occupied by the Croats.
  3. South Serbia’s Autonomous Province of Kosovo-Metochia was firstly occupied in June 1999 by the NATO/KFOR’ forces and later in February 2008 politically separated from its motherland when Albanian-dominated Kosovo’s Parliament proclaimed the formal independence primarily as a direct consequence of the Serbophobic policy by the US’s administration of President Bill Clinton and his warmongering hawk Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright. Today, Kosovo, except its northern part, is ethnically cleansed from the Serbs and transformed into a mafia state with a silent blessing by Washington and the rest of the Western gangsters from the NATO and the EU who recognized its quasi-independence.
Here is very important to stress that, basically, during the Bill Clinton’ administration, the US’ foreign policy in regard to the Balkans (ex-Yugoslavia) was primarily designed and directed by Madeleine K. Albright who became a chief US’ war criminal at the very end of the 20th century.
Who was Mrs. Albright – the author of Madam Secretary: A Memoir, New York: Talk Miramax Books, 2003, 562 pages. Madeleine K. Albright was born in Czechoslovakia in 1937.

Former U.S. secretary of state Madeleine AlbrightShe was confirmed as the 64th US’ Secretary of State from 1997 to 2001. Her career in the US’ government included positions in the National Security Council and as US’ ambassador to the United Nations. The highest-ranking warmonger female hawk in the history of the US’ Government was telling an unforgetable whitewashed story of lies in her memoirs of the US’ imperialism at the turn of the 21st century. She was the first woman in the US’ history to be appointed to the post of Secretary of State (Minister of Foreign Affairs).
For eight years during the first and second Bill Clinton’s terms, she succeeded drastically to ruin America’s image of a democratic and freedom fighting country mainly due to her direct and crucial involvement into the US-led NATO’s aggression on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the FRY) in 1999 composed by Serbia and Montenegro that was the first aggression of this organization in its 50 years long history of the preparation for the invasion of Russia. The aggression lasted for 78 days from March 24th to June 10th, 1999 and was one of the most brutal and barbaric in the modern history of the world breaking all international laws, rules of war and, most important, the Charter and principles of the UNO.
Madeleine K. Albright tried in her memoirs to whitewash her extremely important and even crucial participation in the post-Cold War US’ policy of imperialism but primarily her focal role in the preparation and conduction of the US/NATO’s unprecedented war on the FRY as being one of the most influential policy-makers in her adopted country. The Madam Secretary’s memoirs are firstly the story of a woman of great warmongering character with a fascinating talent to lie and whitewash the truth. Her memoirs are surely a valuable contribution to the political history of aggressive diplomacy of the project of the US’ global hegemony after the collapse of the USSR.
But who was her mentor?...
If we are speaking about the US’ foreign policy, the fundamental question is what are the US policy’s interests and its implications in both the Balkans and Europe.### The US’ involvement in the Balkans and Europe
The achievement of a New World Order after 1990 is being tested for some time in Washington. We have to keep in mind that for some first 20 years after the end of the Cold War, the strongest military and economic power, the leaders of the NATO and the UNO, the initiators of the international peacekeeping missions and negotiations in the regions of „failed states“ in which they provoked the crises and wars, especially at the Balkans, the champions against the international terrorism and crime that was a reaction to their dirty foreign policy of unmasked imperialism and global hegemony, were the USA. Nevertheless, the US’ interests in the Balkans cannot be understood apart from a larger picture of the American interests in Europe in general.
There are many American scientists and politicians who argued that a leadership in Europe will either be American or it will not be, since France and Germany (the axis-powers of the EU) were not too strong to take over and Germany was still in the 1990s too preoccupied with the consequences of its reunification (i.e., the absorption of the DDR). However, the recent (on November 11th, 2018) French President Emmanuel Macron’s initiative to create a joint European Army shows that probably the Europeans finally became enough matured to maintain security in their own home by themselves but not anymore under the umbrella of the US-led NATO. The question, in essence, is not if, but what kind of leadership the US has and will have in the case that the current post-Cold War’s international relations are not going to be drastically changed?
In this respect, the US need to be aware that the best leadership is the one shared with other partners, in this case with the EU/NATO, more specifically France, Germany, and Britain but, of course, Russia have to be seriously taken into the consideration too. With the involvement of Russia into a common European security system on the bases of equal reciprocity, friendship and partnership, the final aim will be to obtain a common vision and an efficient coordination in conflict management, as well as in political and economic cooperation. At such a way, the cases of violent destructions and civil wars, for example on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia, will be avoided for sure.

U.S. Marines escorting Yugoslavian soldiers in Kosovo to be handed over to Yugoslavian authoritiesThe US’ political analysts are keen to suggest that the American presence in Europe should not be regarded as a competition, but rather as a part of the transatlantic partnership between the two continents, as well as a necessity demonstrated by the sad experience in the former Yugoslavia. According to official Washington, the NATO’s intervention in both Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1995 and Kosovo in 1999 (in both cases against the Serbs) under the US’ leadership was the only credible action along with many initiatives taken by the international community. However, on the other side, military intervention is in many cases creating more political and security problems for a longer period of time. It is understandable that the US cannot assist apathetically to the collapse of countries vital to their own interest but such principle is valid to be applied for any great power too. Besides, regional instability only expands, engaging other areas and creating new confrontations. Thus, the economic support offered to some countries, and the military one offered to others shows that the US formally believe in the regional stability as an enforcer of the international stability but in reality only if such stability is put under the umbrella of Washington’s interests and benefits. The case of Kosovo is, probably, the best example of such practice: by bringing a formal stability this province of Serbia is put at the same time under the full Western (primarily American) political control and economic exploitation.
In supporting the NATO’s expansion, there is a hesitation in treating all aspirant countries in a non-discriminatory fashion. And that, because interests are more important than global security, can be the reason. The advocates of the „Pax Americana’s“ view of the global security would publically say that they are not propagating the US as the savior of the world, or the world’s policeman, but they are just the most fervent supporters of the global peace and stability. However, in the practice they are working oppositely: as many as conflicts and insecurity issues in the world, there are more chances and practical opportunities for Washington to become the regional policeman and global savior of the order. In their relationship with other NATO’s countries, the USA regard the process of integration in the Euro-Atlantic space (i.e., the area of the US’ control and administration) as a two-way street in which each partner needs to accomplish its tasks. An addition to those is, of course, the geostrategic position (Turkey instead of Greece, for instance, in the 1974 Cyprus crisis) and short, medium and long-term declarative promises like the economic gratification of security which can at the end to be turned to its opposite side. For instance, the US’ offering military, political and financial assistance to the countries of East-Central and South-East Europe as a mean to build up their security shield against „aggressive“ Russia can be easily transformed into their very insecurity reality coming from the US’ imperialistic policy toward Russia as there were already the cases with Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 as the „Pax Americana’s“ approach in international relations is as its countereffect just provoking the Russian (and Chinese) counteraction in enhancing its own nuclear and other military potentials as Vladimir Putin exactly stressed during his electoral campaigns.

The US’ geopolitical strategy by Zbig

(Vietnam) war criminal Henry Kissinger (ex-US’ Secretary of State), summarized the post-Cold War’s international relations from the American geopolitical viewpoint:
„Geopolitically, America is an island off the shores of the large landmass of Eurasia, whose resources and population far exceed those of the United States. The domination by a single power of either of Eurasia’s two principal spheres – Europe or Asia – remains a good definition of strategic danger for America, Cold War or no Cold War. For such a grouping would have the capacity to outstrip America economically and, in the end, militarily“.It is not surprising that in the 1990s there were raised voices in Washington which required that the US has to find a way of dominating Eurasia at any reasonable cost. The US’ neocon warmongering hawks, like Zbigniew Brzezinski, recognized that the area of the enlarged Middle East (with the Balkans, North Africa, and Central Asia) is from the strategical viewpoint, economically, ideologically and above all geopolitically at the center of the Eurasian issue. However, the US’ neocon hawks’ much wider global geopolitical aims which were coming closer to the aim to continue domination in the Middle East were launched during the Bill Clinton’s presidency as a result of a wider shift in the American foreign policy’s profile led by Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright (“Madam Secretary”) and her extremely Russophobic mentor Zbigniew Brzezinski (known as Zbig).
Warsaw-born Zbig (1928−2017) was a focal personality in the US’ foreign policy’s elite establishment since President Jimmy Carter’s administration in which he was a National Security Advisor. During the Ronald Reagan’s administration, Zbig was the main mediator between Washington and its clients in Afghanistan – the anti-Soviet Taliban forces and Osama bin-Laden with whom Zbig has several common photos (in 1979) on which he is training Osama to operate with just donated American guns to fight the Soviets. Further, Zbig has a great influence on the first Bill Clinton’s administration and he was at the same time an early advocate of the NATO’s eastward expansion (started in 1999). It is assumed that it was exactly Zbig who was instrumental in getting the US’ President Bill Clinton to commit himself to this course of the American imperialism in 1994. Furthermore, Brzezinski’s influence on the US’ foreign policy became stronger during the second Clinton’s administration through a Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright – his former pupil at Columbia University.
It is worth to note that Albright was working under his supervision in Carter’s administration.
If we have to summarize Zbig’s chief imperatives of the US’ imperialistic global policy and geostrategy of the making America world’s hegemon, they are going to be as follows:
  1. To prevent collusion and maintain security among the US’ vassal states (the NATO/EU).
  2. To keep tributaries pliant and protected.
  3. To keep the barbarians (the Russians and their supporters) from coming together.
  4. To consolidate and perpetuate the prevailing geopolitical pluralism in Eurasia by manipulation in order to prevent the emergence of a hostile coalition that could finally attempt to challenge the US’ supremacy in the world.
  5. Those that must be divided and eventually ruled are Germany, Russia, Japan, Iran, and China.

Former US national security advisor Zbigniew Former US national security advisor Zbigniew BrzezinskiThe American direct and infamous participation in the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia in 1991−1995 followed by the 1998−1999 Kosovo’s War can be understood, therefore, as the steps in the realization of Zbig’s geopolitical strategy of making America global hegemon. The US-led bombing of Serbia and Montenegro from March to June 1999 (78 days) was carried out by enlarged NATO and the UNO was only called at the end to sanctify the resulting colonial policy of Washington. The aggression on Serbia and Montenegro was formally justified by a reference to the TV-show plight of Kosovo’s Albanians, developing at the same time the new doctrine of the „humanitarian imperialism“. We have to keep in mind on this place that the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s were fought in a geographical area which is the crucial courtyard of the Eurasian continent that is as such opening a direct way to the ex-Soviet republics on the shores of the Caspian and the energy sources they control. Nevertheless, Kosovo’s War became for the US the genuine precursor of its later invasion of Iraq in 2003.
„Madam Secretary“ was a firm advocate of bombing Serbia and Serbs in Washington primarily due to the direct influence by notorious Russophobe Zbig who saw the Balkan Serbs as „little Russians“ and the Balkan wars of the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia as a testing ground for the US’ policy throughout the whole Caspian and Central Asian area. However, in addition, being an advocate for the US’ oil companies wishing to establish their business on the territory of ex-Soviet Union in the Caucasus and Central Asia, Zbig regarded the American political and geostrategic supremacy in this region as a crucial aim of the US’ foreign policy in the 1990s. In order to accomplish his aim, among other manipulations and instruments, Zbig championed the American support to the Islamic Pakistan, the Taliban Afghanistan (till 9/11) and the Islamic resurgence in Saudi Arabia and even Iran.

Multidimensional aspect of security

It is true that globalization, stability, and security offer to the countries a greater capacity to cooperate and focus on the economic prosperity of its citizens but in practice, this particularly means much more important businesses and more money for the US’ economy and citizens. Today, security has multidimensional aspects. If during the Cold War security only had a military-political component, today it has gained a new aspect – the economic one. The non-military aspects of security comprise everything from macroeconomic stability to environmental health. The proponents of the US’ global hegemony will all the time argue that where there is a harmony (established by the US) and well-being the chances of conflicts to erupt are smaller and the gain is exclusively financial and economic (primarily for the US).
There is, of course, a combination between interest _per se_ and their consequences. To illustrate, the case of Macedonia could be interesting. Macedonia at the first glance benefits of the US’ military presence on her territory since 1991 as it is a geostrategic spot in the Balkans of the highest importance. As a matter of fact, this military presence maintained Macedonia’s economic level at a higher standard than some of the other countries in the area up to 2001, despite the fact that was still the poorest of the former Yugoslav six republics affected by two economic embargos by Greece in 1991−1993. Macedonia was illustrated till 2001, especially by the Western media, as being a success story in conflict prevention and peace maintenance primarily due to the presence of the US/NATO’s military troops. However, in 2001 erupted inter-ethnic conflict between the Slavic Macedonians and the local Albanians (supported by the Kosovo Liberation Army) what brought the question of the US/NATO’s efficiency in the region.
The NATO’s eastward expansion is a particular story of Zbig’s geostrategic designs against his eternal enemy – Russia. It is a fact that just before the NATO’s aggression on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999, this military organization accepted as the member states three East-Central European countries: Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic (the next eastward enlargement was in 2004). Therefore, the southern flank of the NATO between Hungary and Greece became now interrupted only by the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. Subsequently, such situation gave NATO a considerable strategic interest in controlling the Balkans where the Serbs were the most numerous and geostrategically important nation. However, as a direct effect of the NATO’s eastward enlargement, the Iron Curtain was moved further to the east and closer to Russia’s borders with all spectrum of the expected and unexpected consequences of such anti-Russian Drang nach Osten. Now, the Iron Curtain, once dividing Germany, it came in 1999 to run down the eastern borders of Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary, ending on the state-borders of the ex-Yugoslav republics, now independent states. The crux of the matter is that a decade-long process of the NATO’s eastward enlargement became at the beginning of 1999 blocked in the Balkans by the Serbs – the only ex-Yugoslav nation firmly opposing a NATO’s membership. Subsequently, it was exactly Washington to assume the role of leading the NATO to the new anti-Russian front and borders. That was the crucial reason why the Serbs had to be bombed in 1999 and Kosovo occupied by the US-led NATO’s troops in the form of the UNO KFOR. What regards this issue, both Zbig and „Madam Secretary“ were clearly speaking through the mouth of the US’ President Bill Clinton: the stability (the US’ control) in the Balkans could only be established if the EU and the USA do for this region what it was done for Europe after the WWII and Central Europe after the Cold War – occupation and economic-financial exploitation within the formal framework of the NATO’s and EU’ (the USA) enlargement.

Conclusion

The brutal expansion of the NATO is very visible since 1999 and even expected if we are taking into consideration the final aims of the US’ foreign policy in Eurasia framed by a notorious foreign policy gangster – Zbigniew Brzezinski.
As a consequence, the EU is going to continue to be America’s main colonial partner in the NATO’s preparations for the war of aggression against Russia and most probably at the same time China.
Subsequently, there will be a need for much work and a common will to overcome violence, injustice, and suffering in order to achieve a global security without the hegemonic dominance by any great power.
submitted by rotoreuters to zerohedge [link] [comments]


2018.07.19 11:58 ZippyDan Path to electorate domination: a pragmatic Democratic platform to minimize division and improve society

Guiding principles:

Key platform foci (summary):

These are vaguely in descending order from most to least important, but in reality some of these things are very hard to prioritize over the next item on the list. I’d actually put them into three tiers, where everything in each tier is approximately of equal importance.
Tier 1 1. Healthcare 2. Education 3. Social Security 4. Human rights 5. Environment
Tier 2 6. Infrastructure 7. Research 8. Voting 9. Campaign finance 10. Labor 11. Criminal justice 12. Military 13. Economy 14. Tax Reform 15. Accountability and transparency
Tier 3 16. Child-care 17. National ID 18. Arts

Strategic goals:

  1. Eliminate or minimize wedge issues. Ignore (for now) issues that give rise to the single-issue voter.
  2. Make short-term ideological sacrifices regarding lesser harmful issues in order to achieve significant, more important, and more widely beneficial policy changes that will create a greater net benefit for society in the long-term.
  3. Focus on investment in the intelligence, skills, and health of the American people and the quality of its infrastructure with the goal of increasing American economic competitiveness and prosperity.
  4. Focus on a few core social issues that all reasonable people can agree on, regardless of ideology, especially as they intersect with the goal of investing in the American people and prosperity.
  5. Ignore or avoid fringe or sectional social issues that often intersect with regional, racial, gender, or religious identities.
  6. Continue to support the ideas of diversity, tolerance, and acceptance in general, without pushing for specific policy changes.
  7. Minimize spending on overseas entanglements and foreign interventions and wars.

Strategic philosophy:

A more intelligent, more educated, more prosperous society will naturally and inevitably tend toward the correction of baser social problems such as racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination based on group identities. By common-sense investment in the American people now, by ensuring the election of leaders that focus on the betterment of the core fundamentals of society, perhaps at the expense of other smaller issues, we can ensure the creation of increasingly rational and compassionate generations, who will then be better equipped in the future to tackle smaller, more specific issues such as gun control, reproductive rights, immigration, and other social issues.

Important caveat:

This is a platform for the national level. At the national level the Democratic Party needs to appeal to people from all regions and all states. The idea here is that we are looking for, not the least common denominator, but the most essential and most important common denominators of policy that the average person from any American state would most likely support. As always, and I hope obviously, local politicians would be more adaptable to the beliefs of their local constituents. Thus, Democrats running for local office, or for Congress, in a fiercely pro-Abortion state should also be openly and fiercely pro-Abortion. Conversely, it would be senseless and counterproductive to run a fiercely pro-Abortion candidate in a red state that will inevitably lose and accomplish nothing.
So how is this proposal any different than what we are already doing? We already have some Democrat legislators that are anti-abortion, or pro-gun, etc. depending on their constituency. The main difference here is to avoid debating those topics on the national level, which can have significant down-ballot effects. A supposedly pro-gun local Democrat loses credibility with the on-the-fence, single-issue voter when the national party is so vehemently anti-gun. The objective here is to strip away the more controversial and less important issues from the national platform and focus on core Social Democrat competencies. We can keep discussing these wedge issues where relevant, but only on a local level. In New England, abortion is an irrelevant topic because it is already widely accepted. In the Deep South, abortion is an irrelevant topic because it has no chance of being popular in the current generation. In certain battleground states, a pro-abortion candidate may be relevant because certain segments of society are rightfully fearful of having rights impinged, or reasonably hopeful of evolving into a more open local community. We can still battle for these wedge issues where it makes sense to battle for them, and where the wedge can most realistically be used in our own favor.

Issues to avoid:

1. Gun control
2. Immigration
3. Abortion
4. Race and gender and other sectional social issues
The cost-benefit analysis of investing in the well-being of the American people as a whole, over certain more emotional and divisive social issues should result in a no-brainer calculus. The well-being of the American people must be improved by a multi-pronged approach focusing on the economy, infrastructure, education, healthcare, and the environment.
I personally believe in strong LGBTQ rights, I believe in the right to abortion, I believe in strong gun laws and requiring a license to own guns, I believe that this is a country founded on tolerant immigration policies, and I believe blacks, women, and other minorities are at a severe historical disadvantage in this country. But I don’t believe any of those issues are worth fighting for - and worth losing elections over - if they are costing the American people far greater tolls in suffering, loss of life, and loss of money.
Take the most recent elections as an example. Imagine a Hillary Clinton that was pro-gun, declined to champion abortion, and agreed with Trump on his anti-immigration rhetoric. Could she have managed to swing enough conservative voters in those few key states to pull off an election win? Instead, how much have we lost, in terms of social regression, attacks to our healthcare system, removal of key environmental regulations, damage to our international relationships, standing, and reputation, and, perhaps most important of all, the appointment of two conservative Supreme Court justices which will shape the political, social, economic landscape for decades to come? The decisions of those justices will be far more likely to affect the future of abortion rights, voting rights, campaign finance reform, etc. than any other Trump policy.
Furthermore, how many more seats in the House, Senate, and even in the local legislatures could the Democrats win, if they gave up arguing for these wedge issues like gun control, abortion, and immigration?
My overarching hypothesis, is that there are far more single-issue voters amongst the Republicans than there are amongst the Democrats. The Republicans have far more social conservatives and religious voters that don’t really care about any policies other than to make sure they are voting against abortion (the religious), or voting against gun control (the large contingent of gun aficionados), or voting against illegal immigration.
Let’s face the facts:
  1. Gun control: The second amendment is unarguably a part of the Constitution. We could argue the exact interpretation, but why bother? Unless we get a constitutional amendment to truly clarify the divide, which will be unlikely or counterproductive unless we win more local legislatures, any attempts at gun control are probably unconstitutional and doomed for failure. This is not a hill worth dying on. How many people are dying to gun violence every day, compared to how many people are suffering because of lack of healthcare, or because of lack of jobs resulting from lack of education? Furthermore, gun violence is often a symptom of poverty. Instead of continuing to attack guns, why not try an alternate method of attacking the deficiencies in our education system? The more we fight for gun control, the more votes we lose, the more elections we lose, and the more we regress on social issues like education and healthcare, which are far more important and affect far more people in terms of suffering and prosperity.
  2. Illegal immigration: It’s illegal! I’m in favoring of allowing more legal immigrants, but let’s put that on hold for now, and focus on bettering the people we already have in this great country. Again, we’re losing so many voters who are voting based on this single issue, and because of that we’re losing battles and losing the war.
  3. Abortion: We already won this battle! The Supreme Court decision was made. Loudly proclaiming your support for abortion does nothing but motivate religious fanatics to vote against you. The greatest threat to the existence of abortion is now the appointment of two conservative Supreme Court justices - an outcome that could have been avoided by simply not commenting on the topic.
  4. Race, gender, and social orientation: We already had the civil rights movement, and won. We already have laws against discrimination by color, sex, creed, etc. We already have same sex marriage. There are definitely more battles to be fought: for disadvantaged black communities, for equality in the workplace, for LGBTQ rights. But I believe that America has already made huge strides in those areas, and has already gathered enough momentum, that we don’t necessarily need to push to legislate those changes at this time. Right now, continued insistence about legislating more equality just stirs up racial and religious divisions and accusations that the Democrats are stoking identity-based tensions. On the other hand, losing elections and electing transparently racist Presidents sets back our progress much more than if we just leave these issues alone, for now, and focus on core socioeconomic problems. If we can just elect competent leaders, I think most of these issues will resolve themselves naturally and can then be enacted legislatively with ease by future generations.
Here are some general philosophies that most compassionate, religious conservatives should find as common interests with this Democratic platform:
  1. Care for the disadvantage, the poor, the sick, just as Jesus commanded
  2. Protect the environment, for it is God’s gift and his creation
  3. All human life is valuable in God’s eyes
  4. War and violence is an evil
Here are some general philosophies that most economic and fiscal conservatives should find as common interests with this Democratic platform:
  1. Invest in the American people to see greater economic returns
  2. Invest in American infrastructure and technology to see greater economic returns
  3. Streamline the American healthcare system to reduce overall costs and increase healthcare efficiency and effectiveness
  4. Reduce unnecessary military spending and costly overseas engagements
Here are some general philosophies that most nationalists and conservative conspiracy theorists should find as common with this Democratic platform:
  1. Requiring a voter ID
  2. Removing the insecure SSN as a method for falsifying documents for illegal immigrants
  3. Make government documents more accessible
  4. Make campaign finance contributions more open
When you remove the divisive wedge issues of gun control, abortion, immigration, and racial messaging, I think you’d find that many conservatives would actually have a lot in common with Democratic ideology. By removing the key motivations of those single-issue voters, we could see a wave of Democratic dominance, which would result in a huge net benefit to American (and global) society. The final result in a huge improvement in the quality of life for everyone in the short-term and the realization of all Democratic goals in the long term.
By focusing on these few hot-button topics, the Republican Party has managed to drag the entire discourse and spectrum of American politics to the right. Many voters are only voting against abortion (for instance), and not caring about the other 20 far-right policies (which are often hurtful to the voters’ own self interest) that they get enacted and normalized as part of American life. If we took those key leverage points to of the political discourse, I can’t see Republicans winning head to head on matchups like free healthcare vs. not-free healthcare. Instead, we could drag the entire political landscape of America back to the left.
Instead of competing with the package of [no-abortion + no-immigration + guns-for-all + 20-crazy-policies], Republicans would just be left with [20-crazy-policies] and would have to reformulate their stance on issues to be actual, well-thought-out ideas and solutions in order to present a credible alternative to Democratic ideologies. I’d welcome such a new generation of Republican politicians (because lordy, this generation definitely needs to go).
Compare that to the current Republicans which vehemently opposed Obamacare, but were elected on the backs of people who didn’t actually want to see Obamacare fail (because better access to cheaper healthcare benefits the poor, uneducated rural Republican more than most), but instead only voted for the Republicans because they wanted to see abortion abolished and keep their guns safe. Once this group of Republican politicians was elected, they couldn’t even formulate a reasonable replacement to Obamacare - because Obamacare is already the product of a center-right ideology, and the Republicans never had any credible alternative. They only ever had their key wedge issues as an emotional golden ticket to get people to the polls.
Right now we’re fighting for too many little things. We’re distracted and unfocused. We’re fighting for 20 things of varying importance, and losing all 20 because of the 3 or 4 smallest and least important. If we give up those 3 or 4 small things, focus on the top 5 most important core issues where we can see far more agreement across a wider cross-section of American voters, we can actually do more good for the public (we aren’t doing any good by continually losing all three branches of the federal government and most of the state governments) and we as the cherry on top we even have more hope to win those 3 or 4 small things that we give up for now, by laying the foundations now for better generations to come.

Key platform policies (detailed):

1. Universal healthcare (Medicare for all)
2. Universal education
3. Universal basic income (Social Security for all)
4. Human rights
5. Environmental protection
6. Infrastructure investment
7. Increased research investment
8. Voting reform
9. Campaign finance reform
10. Labor reform
11. Criminal justice and prison reform
12. Reduced military spending
13. Economic reform
14. Tax reform
15. Greater accountability and transparency
16. Universal child-care
17. National ID
18. Increased investment in the arts

Objections:

You might say some of the these are far too expensive and ambitious. I agree that some of these programs would be hugely expensive, however:
  1. Most would see long-term higher ROIs in terms of productivity, savings, and qualify of life. Universal education will result in higher wages and more new businesses, universal healthcare will result in tremendous savings in health costs and systemic inefficiencies, and infrastructure investments will increase general economic productivity for businesses, workers, and tourism.
  2. Higher productivity will translate to higher incomes for the public and to higher tax income for the government, which will help offset costs. (Tax revenue from legalizing recreational drugs will also provide a small but significant contribution to funding new programs.)
  3. Americans always seem to be able to afford new weapons or new wars. The second Iraq war, a completely useless and unfounded war, cost enough to pay for universal healthcare for life, or education for life, for all Americans alive at that time. We need to realign our priorities. Why do we prioritize killing foreigners over educating and curing our own people? A gradual reduction in defense spending should follow gradual redirection of those budgetary funds into social and infrastructure programs.
  4. Not all of these projects and initiatives need be implemented in full (they would be gradual implementations) nor all implemented simultaneously. Universal healthcare an universal education should come years, if not decades, before universal basic income, for instance.
  5. The wealthiest Americans must contribute more tax revenue towards funding social programs in general. That means taxes would go up for those making more than half a million dollars a year. The goal would be to maintain the tax rate stable for everyone else (or even reduce the tax rate for the poorest).
submitted by ZippyDan to BlueMidterm2018 [link] [comments]


2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
Book: Cat icon Cats portal icon Mammals portal Aging in cats Animal testing on cats Animal track Cancer in cats Cat and mouse (cat-and-mouse game) Cat burning Cat intelligence Cat lady Cats and the Internet Dog–cat relationship Dried cat List of cat breeds List of cat documentaries List of cats List of fictional cats and felines Pet door including cat flap Pet first aid Popular cat names Trap-neuter-return Cats by location Cats in ancient Egypt Cats in Australia Cats in New Zealand Cats in the United States Notes Taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to compounds containing both an amino and a carboxyl group.[90] References Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Felis catus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. 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A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-521-63495-4. Muir, Hazel (8 April 2004). "Ancient Remains Could Be Oldest Pet Cat". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. Walton, Marsha (9 April 2004). "Ancient Burial Looks Like Human and Pet Cat". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. "Gatos fueron domesticados en China hace 5.300 años". La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Mason, I. L. (1984). Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-582-46046-8. Mark, Joshua J. (17 February 2012). "Cats in the Ancient World". Ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Engels, Donald W. (2001) [1999]. Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26162-7. Rogers, Katherine M. (2006). Cat. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-86189-292-8. Beadle, Muriel (1977). Cat. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 76. ISBN 978-0671224516. Pate, Alan (2008). "Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction". Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. Faulkes, Anthony (1995). Edda. p. 24. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews, Vol. I: The Sixth Day (PDF). Translated by Szold, Henrietta. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004). When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-4697-9. Reeves, Minou (2000). Muhammad in Europe. New York University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8147-7533-0. Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai". سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. "Abu Hurairah and Cats". Pictures-of-Cats.org. 13 January 2015. "Are Black Cats Really Bad Luck? [Hoax]". SocialNewsDaily.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 543. ISBN 0-198-20171-0. Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough, (1922). Online version. Archived 8 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Sugobono, Nora (7 March 2010). "Las vidas del gato". El Comercio (in Spanish). Lima, Peru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2010. "Qual é a origem da lenda de que os gatos teriam sete vidas?". Mundo Estranho (in Portuguese). São Paulo, Brazil: Abril Media. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015. Dowling, Tim (19 March 2010). "Tall tails: Pet myths busted". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2010. "The ASPCA Warns About High-Rise Falls by Cats: High-Rise Apartments, Windows, Terraces and Fire Escapes Pose Risk to Urban Cats". New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via About.com. (Press release.) External links Listen to this article (3 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3
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2018.06.13 00:43 domirillo Tactical Intoxication Program: S9E08 "A Discovery"

pre-TL;DR I work at Floyd County on Archer. Each week I make a post about the drink that will be featured in the upcoming episode. The idea is that you get to drink along with the characters on the show. If you're into that kind of thing. I do my best to never include spoilers about the episode because nobody likes spoilers. Enjoy the TIP.
All season I’ve wanted to do some interviews for some of the spirits and cocktails in these TIPs, because for one, it’s a little easier on me, and secondly, I am doing most of my research as a novice, and there are people who know these topics intimately, with first hand experience, who are much more qualified than I am. After many missed opportunities, I am finally able to present one interview as a finale for Danger Island. This week, you’ll be drinking MAI TAIS, which you can skip the wall of text to the recipe below, but I sat down at Victory Sandwich Bar in Atlanta, and chatted with Josh Martin, who is the Co-Bar Manager for The S.O.S. Tiki Bar, in Decatur, GA. Josh is one of my favorite people to shoot shit with. He is well read and educated about his craft and beyond, and he’s also incredibly friendly and approachable and makes you feel right at home. If you ever get a chance to visit Atlanta, make The S.O.S. a stop on your list, and if he ever visits your city, make it a point to welcome him. I sat down and just wanted to talk about his experience at a tiki bar, interacting with tiki culture, and his travels across the country to see what other people are doing.
INTERVIEW WITH JOSH MARTIN OF THE S.O.S. TIKI BAR
Is The S.O.S. the first tiki bar you’ve worked?
It was, yeah, indeed. I’d worked the various luaus Victory had done before, but when I heard they were gonna be closing Paper Plane, they said they were gonna change it and make it a tiki bar, I said “sign me up. I want to do that. I’m excited about tiki, I love tiki, and I want to be a part of that.” Because outside of The S.O.S. and Trader Vic’s, there are no other tiki bars. There are people who do tiki nights every so often, but that was a factor in deciding to open The S.O.S., because it was scratching an itch that no one else was. And so that was cool. Especially when done well, with the resurgence of “new tiki” or “neo-tiki” in Chicago and New Orleans at Three Dots & a Dash, and Latitude 29, that stuff was not happening in Atlanta and we wanted it to. And also, tiki matches the Vic Brands concept a little more neatly than what they were doing at Paper Plane. It’s a little more goofy, it’s a little more loose and fun.
Speaking of being loose and fun, your new menu might be considered “non-traditional” for a tiki menu?
Yeah, it is. Ya know, and the elements are there, ripe fruit flavors, citrus flavors. This menu right now, is real technique driven. We aren’t trying to take historic tiki and repurpose it, it’s more about taking those flavors and components and pushing them in a more modern and technique driven direction. We’ve got one drink right now called “Your Dekalb Tiki Cocktail”, kind of an homage to this iconic grocery in Decatur called Your Dekalb Farmers Market. The drink has these very vegetal fresh flavors, from carrot puree and watermelon, and it comes topped with this fucking whipped cream garnish that is a drink in itself basically. It’s got cream, citrus zests, passionfruit syrup, house made Don’s Mix, and 151. We’ve also got the Chaka Cha, which has a banana infusion, and a house made peanut-hazelnut orgeat. It’s also got cachaca, which isn’t traditional tiki, but fits those flavors.
I’m catching you right before you go to Florida, right?
Yeah, The S.O.S. is going to Fort Lauderdale, early wednesday morning, going down to Hukilau. It’s the second year I’ve gone. Hukilau is a tiki convention of sorts. That’s maybe the best way to describe it. It actually was founded in Atlanta in 2002. It was done at Trader Vic’s and it was kind of a small. So, it’s tiki culture, in terms of drink. But it’s also, what they call “Atomic Pop”, which is kind of mid-century/atomic era/Polynesian culture. Or maybe “Polynesian cultural appropriation”, hahaha, viewed through the lens of 1950’s Americana. But it is pretty cool. The people there are really dedicated to it in terms of style and design, tattooing, surf rock music. So, Hukilau was founded in Atlanta, and it grew, and then moved to Fort Lauderdale and they partnered with the MaiKai, which is this legendary tiki restaurant down there. It been open since 1956, so it’s one of the oldest continually operating tiki spots in the world, especially with Don the Beachcomber’s closing last summer. So that place is awesome. It’s beautiful. They’ve got this Polynesian dance show on the inside. Some events are happening there, but most of the events for Hukilau are happening off-site at some hotels. They get bartenders from around the world, surf rock groups playing shows, there’s vendors, they do rum classes, cocktail classes. It’s probably 1,500 people go to this thing. Basically ComicCon for tiki drinks.
Is that where you’ve made some of the connections with the other bars you’ve collaborated with?
Yeah! Actually, we met all those dudes, the Pagan Idol guys, Hidden Harbor, Lost Lake, Three Dots, we met all of them at the convention last year. Which definitely broadened our horizons. We got to see what everyone else was doing. Which has helped us step our game up, which is cool, and it just gave us an insight into what is out there. So, the Hukilau, is an ancient Hawaiian method of fishing where they take these giant nets, and drag them really far out into the ocean, then pull them in to a beach, so they just get whole schools of fish trapped in a cove or whatever, as the villagers pull these nets in. Then they have a luau, also called the hukilau. That name is basically both for the method and the event. So everyone gets together and they cook up all this fish, and just have a big party, basically. So this convention, they’re using the word to mean they’re casting the “nets of tiki”, across the world, to pull in everybody for the party. Which, I could talk probably for too long about the cultural appropriate side of things, and I definitely can feel icky about it. My wife being Hawaiian, she makes a point to note, every single time it happens. She’ll be like, “you white people stole my island AND our culture!”
That all said, The S.O.S. is actually pretty light on the typical Polynesian tiki decorations.
Yeah, our drinks are tiki, the vibe is tropical, and when you look at historical concepts, we’re probably closer to where tiki drinks came from than where it is now. Polynesian islands didn’t have tiki bars, right? They don’t produce alcohol. I guess there are now a few distilleries on Maui, and there’s one I think on Oahu I know of. But basically it’s Caribbean drinking culture, decorated with Polynesian aesthetic culture. Jeff Berry’s got a really cool book called "Potions of the Caribbean", which really explores that history. For instance, the piña colada was basically developed at a Hilton Hotel in San Juan. So it’s all West Indies style drinks. Rum is a by-product of colonization of the West Indies.
The S.O.S. seems to have an alternative or liberal take on what it means to be tiki. You aren’t trying to be a homespun version of Trader Vic's.
Yeah, for sure. I call it “New Tiki”.
Is that like ‘nu metal’?
Haha, yeah, N with two U’s, both with umlauts and then a third U, but that one is without an umlaut.
Do you think that seems to be the trend with the places you’ve visited?
Yeah. There are definitely several other people who are doing stuff kind of similar to what we’re doing. Hidden Harbor, up in Pittsburgh, is one I got to spend a good amount of time behind the bar when we visited. Those guys are great. They also have a real mid-century modern design aesthetic on the inside as well. There’s no rattan I could see, and there aren’t Chinese newspapers on the ceiling like Trader Vic’s or whatever. But they DO have an idol! They have a 7 ft, 3,500 pound idol sitting in their dining room. It’s beautifully carved by Tiki Diablo. It’s pretty great. But aesthetically and program-wise, they’re doing a lot of what we’re doing too. And their drinks are done kind of the same way ours are, where they do all the research and history and development of a drink like the Zombie or the Mai Tai, and then we kind of come up with our version of it, or take other concepts and move them in our own direction, places like Hidden Harbor are doing the same thing.
So, looking at it historically, tiki started in the late 30s/early 40s, and really was huge in the 50’s. The 60’s and 70’s had some cool things going on,still fresh ingredients and old school methods, maybe we’d say they had way too much fruit juice. But then the 80’s came along and took all the cool things going on with tiki and just through all of that out the window. It was just all about gross syrups and shitty bottled citrus juice. I think Gary Regan called the 80’s “the dark ages of cocktail culture”, and it’s true. The 80’s just destroyed all of cocktail culture, and tiki was an unfortunate casualty. So now, as I call it “Nü-with-seventeen-umlauts Tiki”, we’re really just taking back all of that. We’ve got these resurgent craft bartending people, and even culture people who have refocused their efforts on what I think is one of the more nuanced and yet fun tents inside of cocktail culture. And so you’ve got stuff across the industry, from Death & Co’s book, and their orgeat recipe, which was definitely the springboard for our stuff, and you’ve got Gary Regan who made this orange bitters that recreated so he could try to remake cocktails from the 1890’s. Orange bitters basically stopped existing after prohibition and so all that had to be brought back. So I just think of us as trying to be a part of that lineage.
There’s a pretty fervent subculture of tiki enthusiasts, do you find they’re receptive to your style and take on things?
Yeah, the Fraternal Order of the Moai shows up all the time, and we’re friends with them. Those people who are really married to tiki culture and have kind of been the torch bearers of it, have, especially in the past year, have been coming into The S.O.S. a lot. We’ve befriended them and got to know them, and talk about the stuff they’re into. There’s this great website called Critiki, moderated by this dude who goes by Humuhumu, and we are always reviewed on there by people saying we don’t really have a lot of tiki decor, but what we end up doing, is maybe we don’t have bamboo or globes hanging from the ceiling, but we do know our stuff, and our drinks are on point. And we do engage all that culture and want to talk about it with tiki fans. Christie White, the founder of Hukilau, came and had her birthday with us recently. So we had the whole room packed out with O.G. Hukilau founders and presenters and stuff. They looked at our menu and they tried our original drinks, but then every couple minutes we’d be throwing them stuff, like “Hey, here’s a Pearl Diver! or here’s a Navy Grog! or here’s this other classic, old school stuff”, but it’s done they way we do them with the freshest ingredients, and quality rums.
I suppose that is in contrast to the way a lot of people I work with have experienced tiki, which is at DragonCon at Trader Vic’s, 7 people deep trying to get a Blue Hawaiian. They’ve got those huge containers, which is probably just not the freshest way to get introduced to those drinks.
Man, Trader Vic’s at DragonCon is always a great time. But yeah, that’s the only way they can really get through that volume crush they get hit with. They have a limited menu, which you can probably get the regular stuff too, but they batch out this limited menu in huge coolers and they’re pouring them into plastic cups to get em out to the convention-goers. And ya know, it is a Mai Tai, they’re legit drinks, but they just don’t have the time to do all the embellishments we do.
Y’all do get pretty packed, but The S.O.S. is a very small space.
Yeah, we’re a tiny room, and Trader Vic’s is just enormous. Their bar area is still pretty small, but the dining rooms are huge. I’d like to see inside of there, and kind of see how the service well operates for their dining room. Because the MaiKai does this, and it’s kind of an older hangover from early hotel bars and mid-century setups, but the MaiKai doesn’t have any bar. There’s no place where people are just sitting facing a bartender. They do have a bar, two of them. There is a bar with 3 wells for the dining room and then another satellite one with two wells for the other areas, but those service wells are deep inside the kitchen, with all their spirits around them back there. So there are no bartenders on the floor making drinks. I’ve never been inside Trader Vic’s kitchen, but I would imagine it’s effectively the same thing.
I’ve never thought about having a service bartender back in the kitchen. I guess that’s got to be about efficiency in high volume, but then you have the other approach, which you sort of fall in to, which is about the showmanship and entertainment bartenders can provide.
Yeah, cause we’re all goofballs too, so we’re trying to ham it up as much as we can. Playing with fire back there, and different methods of shaking drinks that are all fun. There was a time, when our other head bartender, Ean, bought a practice flair cocktail bottle you can practice flipping bottles, but we are all so uncoordinated. It was just a joke. We just couldn’t figure out how to do it, and we were tossing it back and forth to each other, and it was a mess. It’s still floating around the back of the bar somewhere. But yeah, we decided we weren’t gonna start tossing stuff, but we still try to do plenty of showmanship.
Any other bar hopping events after Hukilau?
Nothing nailed down at the moment. We are talking with the people at Lost Lake, but nothing has happened yet. We also want to go visit the new place, Tiki Cat up in Kansas City. Up to date, we’ve traveled to Pagan Idol and they’ve visited us, we’ve gone to Hidden Harbor and they’ve been here. There is this big tiki convention in San Diego called Tiki Oasis I’d like us to go to at some point. There’s also one in Upstate New York, called Ohana Fest, I wanna do. They take over a whole hotel, and every person who stays there decorates their own room as a tiki bar theme, so you can pub crawl through each room. Someone told me one was “Tiki Bar of the Future”, and they did alien costumes and they covered everything in their hotel room in aluminum foil. Which just sounds super cool. I want The S.O.S. to go up there. But there’s a lot more stuff out there we want to check out and be a part of.
THE MAI TAI
We’ve talked about the Mai Tai before, if you want to brush up on your history. But we’re gonna basically use the same recipe, except I’m gonna recommend a slightly more complicated homemade orgeat recipe, for those of you with time and interest.
In a cocktail shaker filled with ice, add the following:
  • .25 oz simple syrup
  • .75 oz fresh lime juice
  • .5 oz orgeat
  • .5 oz Cointreau (or other orange liqueur, like triple sec)
  • 1 oz dark rum (I use Blackwells)
  • 1 oz amber rum (I use Smith & Cross)
Vigorously shake until your hands are getting frosty, and then strain into a tiki mug filled with crushed ice. For some extra flare, garnish by placing a lime “boat” on the drink and pour some high proof rum inside (like 151, Smith & Cross, or Wray & Nephew). Ignite with match/lighter. Then for extra flare, sprinkle some ground cinnamon over the top of the flame. Impress friends and family. Keep a fire extinguisher nearby. Also maybe a first aid kit. I don’t know you people. You might have really back luck.
While you certainly can use the cheap and easy orgeat I listed from S7E04, if you have time, this recipe is SO MUCH BETTER. If you make this version, I would recommend omitting the simple syrup from above, and just up the amount of orgeat to .75 oz.
BEST ORGEAT EVER
(btw, it’s pronounced OR-ZJAH, think Zsa Zsa Gabor. The T is silent, or so I’ve been told)
What you need:
  • 1 cup blanched sliced almonds
  • 1 cup almond milk
  • 1 cup warm water
  • 16 oz sugar
  • 2.5 tsp Amaretto
  • 2.5 tsp Cognac
  • .25 tsp Rose Water (very optional)
  1. In a dry saucepan, on low-medium heat, lightly toast the sliced almonds until golden brown.
  2. Remove from heat and place into a blender.
  3. Add a little warm water and begin blending, slowly adding all of the water, and then all almond milk until completely smooth. There will be some fine particles of almond, but that’s ok.
  4. Strain this mixture through the finest mesh strainer you have, if you have cheesecloth, lining it with that is best. I didn’t have cheesecloth, so I tried passing my mixture through coffee filters, both paper and french press, but but both were too fine, and the mixture wouldn’t drip through. If you can’t out every little spec of almond, it’s ok, you won’t notice at all in a Mai Tai.
  5. Once this is strained, pour it back into a sauce pan, and combine with sugar. Place on medium heat, never allowing it to boil, stirring occasionally, until sugar is fully dissolved.
  6. Remove from heat, and add amaretto, cognac, and rose water.
  7. Store in the refrigerator, it should be good for at least a month. Because I couldn’t strain mine as finely as I wanted, a layer of almond oils/fats separate out and form a film on the top of the orgeat. I honestly think that has helped the shelf life a little bit, by protecting the liquid below from oxygen. I dunno. I suppose I need to drink more so that I don’t have to worry about such things.
ALTERNATE: None that I can think of... I guess you can keep drinking that sangria if you've got any left over in your gourd.
FOOD: Kabobs. Soup and/or stew.
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2018.04.06 17:43 Freeme62410 ERC20 - AirToken is a new approach to the lending platform

As you know, there are about a couple thousand cryptocurrencies and tokens out there now, many of them will fail. Overall sentiment in the market is pretty low right now, but oftentimes, this provides great opportunities. I wanted to share with this subreddit one of the coins that I think is heavily overlooked by a lot of people. I've taken it upon myself to really dig in and get to know the project because I see the value in what they are doing. As you all know, a large portion of crypto right now are basically vaporware. A very large number of projects are mostly hype, and do not have a working product. I'm really impressed with AirFox (the parent company of the crypto AirToken) because in a matter of a few months, they already have a proof-of-concept and a beta application. Their platform is simple, and their approach is unique. They aim to offer micro-loans on the blockchain using 'credit-worthiness' algorithms with an android app to millions of people in Brazil (for starters). They will also allow the end user to earn mobile data by watching ads and filling out surveys. The will offer P2P loans. What makes them unique are a few things: the mobile data sharing is one, but their target market is Brazil. I didn't know this, but the interest rates in Brazil's centralized banking system are 100-400% on average, and millions of people don't have a bank account. AirFox can change this. They have the partnerships and infrastructure to make it happen. Users can use their AirTokens or borrowed funds to pay bills, buy airtime, shop or any other type of service they please at 40,000 locations across Brazil. They already have partnerships signs with large telecoms companies and payment gateways all across Brazil. The team are all brilliant minds from ivy-league schools in the US, and they have an office in Boston, MA. They are a real company with all of the necessary ingredients for success. Why they have flown under the radar is a total surprise to me. The ICO and presale sold out. I have compiled a list of all of the related material that I could find on AirFox, and I encourage you all to check it out. I am not here to be some massive shill. I do believe in the project and I just wanted to share the information. Their dApp is going to be release probably within a month. I am not telling you to buy or what-have-you, but do some digging and make the judgements for yourself. Checkout the team, read the lending whitepaper, download the app, read the articles and determine for yourself. Cheers.
Resources and Articles for AirFox/AirToken
Medium Accounts from AirFox and team accounts (There are A LOT of articles in the Medium accounts. Take the time to read them, as they contain troves of valuable data about the AirToken Platform):
https://medium.com/@AirFox/latest
https://medium.com/@victordsantos/latest (AirFox CEO, Victor Santos)
https://medium.com/@james_3093/latest (AirFox CTO, James Seibel)
AirFox Intros:
https://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2017/08/08/this-techstars-boston-alum-is-planning-to-raise.html
https://www.americaninno.com/boston/this-techstars-alum-plans-to-use-cryptocurrency-to-make-the-internet-more-affordable/
https://www.trustnodes.com/2017/08/09/ex-googlers-using-ethereum-increase-mobile-internet-affordability-digitize-credit-scoring-airfox
https://blog.icoalert.com/ico-alert-report-airtoken-d8d5ee2175f5
https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/banking-unbanked-airfox-ico/
ICO Rankings:
https://www.icocountdown.com/
https://www.coingecko.com/ico/airtoken?locale=en
https://www.icoalert.com/
https://www.ico-list.com/Index/detail/id/248.html
https://www.coinhills.com/ico/view/airtoken/
https://icotracker.net/project/airtoken
https://icobench.com/ico/airtoken
https://icobazaar.com/airtoken
https://www.smithandcrown.com/icos/
http://icoindex.com/profile/airtoken-air
https://icodrops.com/airtoken/
https://cyber.fund/system/AirTokenhttps://99bitcoins.com/complete-ico-list-upcoming-live/
http://icorating.com/project/117/AirToken
https://www.icobounty.co/single-post/2017/09/06/AirToken-Mobile-Access-for-Everyone-ICO-Bounty-Campaign
https://coincentral.com/upcoming-icos/airtoken-ico-token-sale-summary/
Publications:
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/airfox-closes-6-5-million-130000258.html
https://www.engadget.com/2018/02/26/airfox-mobile-wallet/
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/airfox-apos-mobile-wallet-aims-154400121.html
https://cointelegraph.com/press-releases/airfox-launches-mobile-app-in-brazil
https://www.wired.it/mobile/app/2018/02/28/app-mobile-world-congress-2018/
https://benzingafintechawards.com/vote-2018/airfox/
https://www.ccn.com/airfox-closes-6-5-million-airtoken-pre-sale-weeks-ahead-sche dule/ https://www.icoinfo.net/single-post/2017/09/04/AirToken---mobile-internet-with-benefits-for-you
http://www.mintel.com/blog/technology-market-news/mwca-emphasizes-connectivitys-power-for-good
https://hacked.com/airtoken-air-extremely-undervalued-long-term-investment/ (paywall)
https://coincodex.com/article/1090/5-coins-below-ico-price-with-potential/
http://www.bankingtech.com/2018/02/airfox-targets-brazils-unbanked-with-android-app-launch/
https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/pareteums-partner-airfox-launches-mobile-app-in-brazil-300604667.html
https://versusmedia.mx/airfox-busca-reemplazar-a-los-bancos-en-paises-emergentes/
https://www.chipin.com/airfox-launches-mobile-app-brazil/
https://www.lykke.com/company/news/airfox
Brazilian Coverage:
http://www.infomoney.com.bminhas-financas/planeje-suas-financas/noticia/7343693/app-que-usa-blockchain-libera-emprestimo-para-pessoas-sem-conta
https://ecommercenews.com.bnoticias/lancamentos/compras-online-sem-banco-agora-e-possivel/
http://www.jornaldamanha.com.b2018/03/06/concorrente-para-o-nubank-airfox-chega-ao-brasil-oferecendo-servicos-bancarios-por-meio-de-app/
https://loocalizei.com.bairfox-app-banco-inclusivo/
https://www.tudocelular.com/android/noticias/n121339/Aplicativo-Airfox-banco-chega-ao-Brasil-concorrenc.html
http://www.tibahia.com/tecnologia_informacao/conteudo_unico.aspx?c=SERVICOS&fb=B_FULL&hb=B_CENTRA&bl=LAT1&r=SERVICOS&nid=49310
http://diariodocomercio.com.bnoticia.php?tit=Americana%20Airfox%20investe%20US$11,5%20mi%20na%20expans%C3%A3o%20para%20o%20Pa%C3%ADs&id=191600
http://www.nyc.hlsa.org/article.html?aid=161
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/comments/875a0d/airfox_ceo_cofounder_victor_santos_was_recently/
Partnerships:
https://medium.com/@AirFox/airfox-announces-expanded-technology-partnership-with-pareteum-394a0986e60
http://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/pareteum-issues-chairman-update-letter-1015510862
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/comments/84a303/fitbank_airfox/
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/comments/81710p/the_airfox_app_accepts_cash_payments_via_boleto/
Victor Santos: Forbes 30 under 30:
https://www.forbes.com/30-under-30/2018/social-entrepreneurs/#29c0104129e5
https://www.forbes.com/pictures/5a0494a74bbe6f37dda214bd/victor-santos-26/#6d0fa4e87899
https://www.forbes.com/profile/victor-santos/
https://twitter.com/Nasdaq/status/935620863977775105
YouTube Videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT9pdpbDnoU&feature=youtu.be (Victor Santos)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZ3FdIJ4Oao (AirFox app release)
https://youtu.be/CdB-2k1DxH4 (AirFox Intro)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aMPdp0Xg7l8 (Live AMA with James Seibel, CTO)
Wallet info:
https://medium.com/@billyryan_38597/airtoken-cold-storage-instructions-for-ledger-nano-s-420435b7494a
https://getcrypto.info/airtoken/
Social Media Accounts:
https://discord.gg/JXNyapc - Discord
https://open.kakao.com/o/gaGgvaC - Kakao
https://twitter.com/AirToken - Twitter AirToken
https://twitter.com/_AirFox – Twitter AirFox
https://t.me/airtoken_official - Official Telegram Broadcast
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2078932 - BitcoinTalk
[email protected] – E-Mail
Whitepapers (updated W/Ps coming soon):
https://airtoken.com/uploads/AirFoxICO_WhitePaper_v3.0-min.pdf (New ver. Coming soon)
https://airtoken.com/uploads/Spotting_Whitepaper.pdf (Aka Microloans)
http://www.airtoken.com/papeAirFoxICO_WhitePaper_Dutch.pdf (Dutch)
http://www.airtoken.com/papeAirFoxICO_WhitePaper_Russian.pdf (Russian)
http://www.airtoken.com/papeAirFoxICO_WhitePaper_Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
submitted by Freeme62410 to ethtrader [link] [comments]


2018.03.28 20:01 Freeme62410 Running List of All AirFox/AirToken Related Media Coverage and Resources

Resources and Articles for AirFox/AirToken
Medium Accounts from AirFox and team accounts (There are A LOT of articles in the Medium accounts. Take the time to read them, as they contain troves of valuable data about the AirToken Platform):
https://medium.com/@AirFox/latest
https://medium.com/@victordsantos/latest (AirFox CEO, Victor Santos)
https://medium.com/@james_3093/latest (AirFox CTO, James Seibel)
dApp Release
https://medium.com/@AirFox/airtoken-dapp-now-publicly-available-ac5cb524fa5b
AirFox Intros:
https://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2017/08/08/this-techstars-boston-alum-is-planning-to-raise.html
https://www.americaninno.com/boston/this-techstars-alum-plans-to-use-cryptocurrency-to-make-the-internet-more-affordable/
https://www.trustnodes.com/2017/08/09/ex-googlers-using-ethereum-increase-mobile-internet-affordability-digitize-credit-scoring-airfox
https://blog.icoalert.com/ico-alert-report-airtoken-d8d5ee2175f5
https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/banking-unbanked-airfox-ico/
ICO Rankings:
https://www.icocountdown.com/
https://www.coingecko.com/ico/airtoken?locale=en
https://www.icoalert.com/
https://www.ico-list.com/Index/detail/id/248.html
https://www.coinhills.com/ico/view/airtoken/
https://icotracker.net/project/airtoken
https://icobench.com/ico/airtoken
https://icobazaar.com/airtoken
https://www.smithandcrown.com/icos/
http://icoindex.com/profile/airtoken-air
https://icodrops.com/airtoken/
https://cyber.fund/system/AirTokenhttps://99bitcoins.com/complete-ico-list-upcoming-live/
http://icorating.com/project/117/AirToken
https://www.icobounty.co/single-post/2017/09/06/AirToken-Mobile-Access-for-Everyone-ICO-Bounty-Campaign
https://coincentral.com/upcoming-icos/airtoken-ico-token-sale-summary/
Publications:
https://www.mobiletime.com.bartigos/22/08/2018/empresas-de-blockchain-precisam-preencher-a-lacuna-entre-propaganda-e-utilidade/
https://www.efma.com/article/detail/29925
https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexandrawilson1/2018/06/06/chain-gang-the-boldest-blockchain-companies-from-the-forbes-30-under-30/#56c9054b3544
https://cointelegraph.com/news/banks-and-cryptocurrencies-global-evaluation-americas
https://thestartu.com/airfox-bringing-financial-services-and-the-blockchain-to-the-emerging-market/
https://venturefizz.com/blog/airfox-profile
https://dailyhodl.com/2018/05/17/best-us-cities-for-blockchain-jobs/
https://www.techrepublic.com/article/the-top-10-cities-where-you-can-find-a-blockchain-job/
https://benzingafintechawards.com/finalists-2018/ (AirFox App Bezinga Finalist!)
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/airfox-closes-6-5-million-130000258.html
https://www.engadget.com/2018/02/26/airfox-mobile-wallet/
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/airfox-apos-mobile-wallet-aims-154400121.html
https://cointelegraph.com/press-releases/airfox-launches-mobile-app-in-brazil
https://www.wired.it/mobile/app/2018/02/28/app-mobile-world-congress-2018/
https://benzingafintechawards.com/vote-2018/airfox/
https://www.ccn.com/airfox-closes-6-5-million-airtoken-pre-sale-weeks-ahead-sche dule/ https://www.icoinfo.net/single-post/2017/09/04/AirToken---mobile-internet-with-benefits-for-you
http://www.mintel.com/blog/technology-market-news/mwca-emphasizes-connectivitys-power-for-good
https://hacked.com/airtoken-air-extremely-undervalued-long-term-investment/ (paywall)
https://coincodex.com/article/1090/5-coins-below-ico-price-with-potential/
http://www.bankingtech.com/2018/02/airfox-targets-brazils-unbanked-with-android-app-launch/
https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/pareteums-partner-airfox-launches-mobile-app-in-brazil-300604667.html
https://versusmedia.mx/airfox-busca-reemplazar-a-los-bancos-en-paises-emergentes/
https://www.chipin.com/airfox-launches-mobile-app-brazil/
https://www.lykke.com/company/news/airfox
Town Hall Youtube Coverage
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3aelpA79_4 (Pablo Bello Head of Product 4-6-18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aMPdp0Xg7l8 (James Seibel CTO 3-30-18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vopDXR5UzNE (Katie Sedat Head of Marketing 4-13-18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pN1BAUbENaQ (Christine To VP Biz Ops 4-20-18)
Brazilian Coverage:
https://brasilamericaeconomia.com.banalise-e-opiniao/air-tokens-bitcoins-e-crypto-currencies-coisa-de-nerd-ou-tecnologias-que-estao
http://jornalfolk.com.bsite/ler?id=1470
http://www.infomoney.com.bminhas-financas/planeje-suas-financas/noticia/7343693/app-que-usa-blockchain-libera-emprestimo-para-pessoas-sem-conta
https://ecommercenews.com.bnoticias/lancamentos/compras-online-sem-banco-agora-e-possivel/
http://www.jornaldamanha.com.b2018/03/06/concorrente-para-o-nubank-airfox-chega-ao-brasil-oferecendo-servicos-bancarios-por-meio-de-app/
https://loocalizei.com.bairfox-app-banco-inclusivo/
https://www.tudocelular.com/android/noticias/n121339/Aplicativo-Airfox-banco-chega-ao-Brasil-concorrenc.html
http://www.tibahia.com/tecnologia_informacao/conteudo_unico.aspx?c=SERVICOS&fb=B_FULL&hb=B_CENTRA&bl=LAT1&r=SERVICOS&nid=49310
http://diariodocomercio.com.bnoticia.php?tit=Americana%20Airfox%20investe%20US$11,5%20mi%20na%20expans%C3%A3o%20para%20o%20Pa%C3%ADs&id=191600
http://www.nyc.hlsa.org/article.html?aid=161
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/comments/875a0d/airfox_ceo_cofounder_victor_santos_was_recently/
Partnerships:
https://medium.com/@billyryan_38597/airtoken-brazil-and-boleto-eb6c94a24a38
https://medium.com/@AirFox/airfox-announces-expanded-technology-partnership-with-pareteum-394a0986e60
http://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/pareteum-issues-chairman-update-letter-1015510862
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/comments/84a303/fitbank_airfox/
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/comments/81710p/the_airfox_app_accepts_cash_payments_via_boleto/
Victor Santos: Forbes 30 under 30:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexandrawilson1/2018/06/06/chain-gang-the-boldest-blockchain-companies-from-the-forbes-30-under-30/#56c9054b3544
https://www.forbes.com/30-under-30/2018/social-entrepreneurs/#29c0104129e5
https://www.forbes.com/pictures/5a0494a74bbe6f37dda214bd/victor-santos-26/#6d0fa4e87899
https://www.forbes.com/profile/victor-santos/
https://twitter.com/Nasdaq/status/935620863977775105
Bitcointalk Threads:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2078932.0
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2101398.msg21001662#msg21001662
YouTube Videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT9pdpbDnoU&feature=youtu.be (Victor Santos)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZ3FdIJ4Oao (AirFox app release)
https://youtu.be/CdB-2k1DxH4 (AirFox Intro)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3aelpA79_4 (Pablo Bello Head of Product 4-6-18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aMPdp0Xg7l8 (James Seibel CTO 3-30-18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vopDXR5UzNE (Katie Sedat Head of Marketing 4-13-18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pN1BAUbENaQ (Christine To VP Biz Ops 4-20-18)
https://youtu.be/_sQyZ13oTW8 (Ledger Wallet Tutorial)
Wallet info:
https://medium.com/@billyryan_38597/airtoken-cold-storage-instructions-for-ledger-nano-s-420435b7494a
https://getcrypto.info/airtoken/
Social Media Accounts:
https://discord.gg/JXNyapc - Discord
https://open.kakao.com/o/gaGgvaC - Kakao
https://twitter.com/AirToken - Twitter AirToken
https://twitter.com/_AirFox – Twitter AirFox
https://www.reddit.com/AirToken/ - Reddit
https://t.me/airtoken_official - Official Telegram Broadcast
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2078932 - BitcoinTalk
https://www.facebook.com/AirToken/ - Facebook
[email protected] – E-Mail
Exchanges (Stay Tuned)
https://hitbtc.com/exchange/AIR-to-BTC - HitBTC
https://hitbtc.com/exchange/AIR-to-ETH
https://app.radarrelay.com/AIWETH - Radar Relay
https://www.lykke.com/ - Lykke
https://forkdelta.github.io/#!/trade/AIR-ETH - ForkDelta
Whitepapers (updated W/Ps coming soon):
https://airtoken.com/uploads/AirFoxICO_WhitePaper_v3.0-min.pdf (New ver. Coming soon)
https://airtoken.com/uploads/Spotting_Whitepaper.pdf (Aka Microloans)
http://www.airtoken.com/papeAirFoxICO_WhitePaper_Dutch.pdf (Dutch)
http://www.airtoken.com/papeAirFoxICO_WhitePaper_Russian.pdf (Russian)
http://www.airtoken.com/papeAirFoxICO_WhitePaper_Chinese.pdf (Chinese)
Mobile App Download (Google Play):
https://m.airfox.io/2GKAush/
submitted by Freeme62410 to AirToken [link] [comments]


2018.03.26 12:00 ninjyte Far Cry 5 - Review Thread

Game Information

Game Title: Far Cry 5
Genre: Action-adventure, first-person shooter
Platforms: PlayStation 4, Xbox One, PC
Media: Live-Action Teaser Trailer Announce Trailer
First Details: 'Surviving Hope County, Montana'
E3 2017 'Amazing Grace' Trailer E3 2017 Gameplay E3 2017 Presentation
Boomer is a Very Good Boy
Ubiblog - The Rise of a Cult Recreating Montana
Co-Op 'Friend for Hire' Trailer
'The Resistance' Trailer
Ubiblog - 'Vicious Wildlife, A Crazy Cast of Characters, and Co-Op Hijinks'
Story Trailer
'Bill of Rights' Trailer 'Bill of Rights' Compilations (Explicit)
Post-Launch Information Trailer
Arcade - Infinite Gameplay and a Creative Map Editor The New Map Editor
Singalong - "My Country 'Tis of Thee"
Developer: Ubisoft Montreal Info
Ubisoft Toronto Info
Publisher: Ubisoft
Price: Standard Edition - $59.99 USD / $79.99 CDN / €59.99 EUR / £44.99 GBP (contains micro-transactions)
Deluxe Edition Contents - $69.99 USD
Gold Edition Contents - $89.99 USD
Season Pass
Release Date: March 27, 2018
More Info: /farcry Wikipedia Page
Review Aggregator:
OpenCritic - 83 [Cross-Platform] Current Score Distribution
MetaCritic - 81 [PS4] 73 Critics
MetaCritic - 84 [XB1] 23 Critics
MetaCritic - 78 [PC] 16 Critics
Patriotically arbitrary list of some past Far Cry games -
Entry Score (Platform, Year, # of Critics)
Far Cry 89 (PC, 2004, 72 critics)
Far Cry 2 85 (X360, 2008, 75 critics)
Far Cry 3 88 (PC, 2012, 43 critics)
Far Cry 3: Blood Dragon 80 (X360, 2013, 51 critics)
Far Cry 4 85 (PS4, 2014, 83 critics)
Far Cry Primal 76 (PS4, 2016, 86 critics)

Reviews

Website/Author Aggregates' & Critic's Score Quote Platform
AngryCentaurGaming - Jeremy Penter Wait for Sale ~ Wait For Sale This is a 'Wait For Sale'. For Far Cry games, it's always two steps forward one step back and the improvements here are keen, but what my gameplay always came down to was the fact that the spawning system was just so out of control and everything felt so messy over time. Any engagement I wanted to have would always be infected by some type of badger or creature leaping in and attacking everybody, and at first that was fine, but when it stopped characters from being able to talk to me because they get halfway through their sentence and then some animal would attack and it reset everybody, that just started to get a little bit bothersome. PS4
Leadergamer - Emrah Subaşı - Turkish Essential ~ Essential Far Cry 5 learned its lessons from Ubisoft's mistakes and the game's series. Missions don't repeat themselves and offers fun and long gameplay. Despite minor mistakes, Far Cry 5 deserves to be liked.
Eurogamer - Edwin Evans-Thirlwell Unscored ~ Unscored Make Montana emergent again. PS4
Pardis Game - Alireza Razmjoei - Persian Unscored ~ Unscored Without a doubt, Far Cry 5 is the most varied game in the series. Thanks to smart changes to the exploring formula and of course amazing world of Hope County, we can finally say that Far Cry series has evolved. PS4
The A.V. Club - William Hughes Unscored ~ Unscored Montana features some of the most beautiful country in all of America, and Ubisoft has done an amazing job of capturing its rural glory. And the freedom to get credit for just f**** around in this gorgeous world, doing whatever feels most fun, is legitimately intoxicating.* PS4
Player2.net.au - Matt Hewson Unscored ~ Unscored Is Far Cry 5 just another Far Cry game? Well, yes it is, but at the same time, it is more than that. This is a game that has taken what came before it and improved upon it in every single way. The story is brutal, engaging and utterly enthralling, the main characters are memorable and the gameplay is refined and presented in a clever and natural way. So yes this is just another Far Cry game, it is Far Cry at its peak, the best that Far Cry can be and that is truly something worth playing.
Waypoint - Austin Walker Unscored ~ Unscored Despite a strong premise and updates to the series formula, FC5 fails to find a compelling identity.
CNET - Jeff Bakalar Unscored ~ Unscored Far Cry 5 is an awesome open-world action game, delivering the most fully realized, player-driven entry in the series to date. PS4
Kotaku - Ethan Gach Unscored ~ Unscored Far Cry games are laboratories for experimenting, giving you the freedom to do stuff ordinary games won’t, like throw a molotov cocktail at just about anything and watch it burn to the ground. They usually have better shooting than most open world games, and better open worlds than most shooters. Far Cry 5 nails that part of the series’ legacy. The game’s missions flow together organically and let you shift from capturing a cult outpost using an array of explosives and guns to scaling cliffs in search of hidden caches of equipment and lore-filled collectibles. It fails, however, to meaningfully move beyond the rest of the series in merging the violence and chaos these experiments produce with the community of people scattered throughout its world.
Saving Content - Scott Ellison II 100 ~ 5 / 5 stars Hope County, Montana is the American Dream turned Nightmare. Far Cry 5 is dense with activities, people, places, and events that are never overwhelming, but wrack you with indecision as to what to do next. While Far Cry as a series still struggles with the juxtaposition of its humor and seriousness, it manages to do this well enough to not let them get in the way of each other. Far Cry 5 is a shining example of how to revitalize the open world, as this is the best realized game in the series to date, with a convincing villain and a tale to match its tone. Far Cry 5 will make you a believer. PC
Windows Central - Jez Corden 100 ~ 5 / 5 stars Ultimately, Far Cry 5 is a relentlessly fun, aggressively varied open world shooter that will keep you hooked for dozens and dozens of hours. The game's world has never felt more alive, brimming with animal ecosystems, serene lakes, and verdant forests, with spectacular scenery just begging to be screenshotted. XB1
Cheat Code Central - April Marie 96 ~ 4.8 / 5 It might seem like I have a lot of complaints for a game I'm touting as being really good, but the positives of Far Cry 5 outweigh the negative. You can play exactly how you want. You can stealthily take down an entire region, before moving to another. You can run and gun your way through all three simultaneously. The characters that you meet are varied and engaging. There are tons of things to do and see, and plenty of real and virtual people to experience them with. Most of all, Far Cry 5 tells a story that grabs you by the shirt collar and never lets go. PS4
GameSpace - Damien Gula 95 ~ 9.5 / 10 Far Cry 5 is an artistic lesson in juxtaposition. On one hand you have a group of devoted followers of a "message of peace" that live in violence. You have a calm and charismatic leader who insights calamity. There are communities united in anarchy. Far Cry 5 provokes its audience to think and wrestle with the uncomfortable answers to our own "what-ifs" about faith, family, and the power of community. PS4
Hobby Consolas - Álvaro Alonso - Spanish 93 ~ 93 / 100 Simply put, Far Cry 5 is the best Far Cry game to date. It has the best story, the best progression and introduces a lot of changes (for the good) while maintaining that explosive old formula that works so freaking well. God Bless Hope County. PS4
Oyungezer Online - Utku Çakır - Turkish 92 ~ 9.2 / 10 Your visit to Hope County will offer an unforgettable experience. I can wholeheartedly recommend Far Cry 5 to everyone. XB1
VGN - Tommaso Stio - Italian 92 ~ 9.2 / 10 Far Cry 5 is the result of a strong development made during the past few years by Ubisoft. It really is a mixture of all the strengths belonging to this saga until today. Although this new chapter detaches from a well agreed scheme, as it happened during the third episode with Vaas Montenegro, it is still capable to draw a good starting point for this series. And of course, this is the best Far Cry ever made. PS4
Wccftech - Kai Powell 91 ~ 9.1 / 10 If you're wondering whether bringing the madness to our doorstep, making the entire campaign co-op and including an impressive toolbox to create new levels and missions while still retaining that visceral gunplay the series is known for keeps Far Cry 5 fresh and worth playing on Day One, my answer is: yes, absolutely. PS4, PC
IGN Spain - Juan García - Spanish 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 is as good as we were wishing, offering a great campaign with lots of freedom and things to do, a satisfying narrative and surprising multiplayer options through Far Cry Arcade. A pretty complete pack. XB1
COGconnected - Paul Sullivan 90 ~ 90 / 100 The characters and story really make Far Cry 5 a brave product. PS4
God is a Geek - Chris White 90 ~ 9 / 10.0 The best Far Cry yet, with well written characters, lots of freedom to play how you want, and a lot of fun to be had on your own or with a friend. PS4
Press Start - Toby Berger 90 ~ 9 / 10 stars Far Cry 5 is an absolute blast from beginning to end, chock full of things to do and involve yourself in. The narrative is interesting, and everything you do in Hope County feels meaningful in some way or another — making for an experience that feels as rewarding as it does enjoyable. PS4
SA Gamer - Garth Holden 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 is the height of the series and gives new legs to exploration in open world games while keeping the freeform tools to take down places as you see fit. Welcome to Hope County, you will be here a while. PS4
USgamer - Mike Williams 90 ~ 4.5 / 5 stars Far Cry 5 is a game that struggles in trying to serve two purposes. On one hand, there's a dark, horrific tale of a cult taking over a small town. On the other, it's a playground of destruction, letting players fly and drive around, blowing up things with a bear and a dog. Both sides are good, but they don't really meet in the middle. If you can survive the tonal whiplash, you'll find a great game here and Far Cry Arcade only makes it better. PS4
TheSixthAxis - Gareth Chadwick 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 is another improvement to a series that hit its stride quite a long time ago. It gets a recommendation not because of any of its individual features, but because they all combine together into a game that becomes paradoxically funny and horrifying, occasionally at the same time. It depicts a part of America lovingly with its tongue very firmly glued to its cheek, but when I close my eyes, I still see Joseph Seed staring back at me. PS4
We Got This Covered - David Morgan 90 ~ 4.5 / 5 stars Ubisoft have cherry-picked everything that has made the Far Cry series successful, and distilled it into a single, laser-focused package. Far Cry 5 probably isn't going to blow anyone's mind, but it provides a continuously fun experience that avoids the repetition and formulaic nature of past titles. PS4
PlayStation Universe - Garri Bagdasarov 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 is the best Far Cry to date. The great additions and refinements made to the franchise are fantastic. Along with the inclusion of Far Cry Arcade, which extends your play time, Far Cry 5 is the ultimate open-world first person shooter. PS4
GameSpot - Edmond Tran 90 ~ 9 / 10 [Provisional Score] With smart changes to exploration, discovery, and progression, Far Cry 5 makes engaging and experimenting with its gorgeous open world more exciting than ever. PC
CGMagazine - Cole Watson 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 was a blast from start to finish, pulling me into the experience instantly with an Americana rich world full of memorable characters and built with a strong core of addictive first-person gameplay. PS4
Attack of the Fanboy - William Schwartz 90 ~ 4.5 / 5 stars We didn't get it with the last two entries in the series, but Far Cry 5 feels like the generational leap that fans have been waiting for. This installment certainly feels like the biggest in terms of content and it just might be the best Far Cry game to date. XB1
Saudi Gamer - صالح بازرعة - Arabic 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 delivers on what has made the series special, with freeform gameplay, a hostile environment replete with colorful characters and a generous amount of content in both missions and activities, in addition to numerous gameplay tweaks and improvements. It might not be a huge departure from the series, but it definitely is the most polished one so far. PS4
TechRaptor - Samuel Guglielmo 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 combines a wonderful setting and interesting characters with extremely fun gameplay, a fantastic open world full of great side quests, and lovely presentation. It also has a powerful level editor that could make some real gems. This is a new standout for the series, as it's easily the best Far Cry has been. PS4
GamingTrend - Ron Burke 90 ~ 90 / 100 With new gameplay mechanics, overhauled progression systems, a strong narrative, and the Guns/Friends for Hire system, Far Cry 5 is the overhaul that the series desperately needed. It is easily the best of the series, and represents a positive step in a new direction. Come for the storyline, stay for the co-op chaos. PS4
GamingBolt - Shubhankar Parijat 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5's open-ended and free-form brand of exploration, chaotic and emergent combat, immersive setting, and inherently fascinating narrative premise all come together in what is easily the best Far Cry game ever. PS4
Game Rant - Dalton Cooper 90 ~ 4.5 / 5 Far Cry 5 may not have much in the way of revolutionary new ideas, but it streamlines Ubisoft's open world formula and delivers one of the best games in the series. PS4
3DNews - Алексей Лихачев - Russian 90 ~ 9 / 10 A wonderful continuation of the series. Far Cry 5 adjusted a well-known formula enough to make the chase after brilliant antagonists very fun and exciting. PS4
VideoGamer - Colm Ahern 90 ~ 9 / 10 In its quieter moments Hope County is a picturesque backdrop to terrific Prepper Stash puzzles, and an over-the-top fantasy playground when the volume is turned up. Taking on Eden's Gate is compelling, horrific, and an awful lot of fun. XB1
AusGamers - Steve Farrelly 90 ~ 9 / 10 And so what we get in the end is a Far Cry that is both structured and full of open player-agency and emergent activity. It’s a game whose game-world is designed for you to love and adore, to become intimate and at one with; to be equally terrified of. XB1
Fenix Bazaar - Gaetano Prestia 90 ~ 9 / 10 [Provisional Score] Brimming with confidence, overflowing with content, and firmly established among the genre’s best, Far Cry 5 stakes early claim as one of the year’s best. You don’t want to miss the sheer insanity of Hope County, Montana. PS4
Stevivor - Ben Salter 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 is the thoughtful next step in a series renowned for shooting first and thinking second. The villains are devious, the world is intriguing and the wild animals remind you who owns the land. It takes the Far Cry blueprint and expands the highlights while changing the sliders on aspects that became overused to craft not only the best Far Cry game, but one of the best open worlds to explore this generation, whether alone or with a little help from a friend (or AI dog). XB1
Dualshockers - Lou Contaldi 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry 5 isn't revolutionizing open world gaming, but it is a perfection of one of Ubisoft's most noteworthy series. With a captivating scenario, diverse gameplay options, breathtaking background, and a colorful cast of characters, Far Cry 5 is primed as one of 2018's earliest Game of the Year contenders, and potentially the best title in the series to date. Through more thoroughly leaning into the concepts of open-world design, Ubisoft has managed to craft a game that will really scratch your itch for exploration. PS4
GearNuke - Khurram Imtiaz 90 ~ 9 / 10 Far Cry series has finally made its return after a long wait, and it’s a bigger and more ambitious attempt on the same old classic Far Cry formula that the fans have grown to love across the numerous games. PS4
IGN - Daemon Hatfield 89 ~ 8.9 / 10 Far Cry 5 is another wide-open playground with all the necessary ingredients for causing a real ruckus: loads of enemies and allies, temperamental wildlife, and plenty of explosions. PS4, XB1
Cerealkillerz - Gabriel Bogdan - German 89 ~ 8.9 / 10 Despite a frustrating AI and a strong focus on Online Co-Op/Far Cry Arcade, Far Cry 5 is probably the best Far Cry experience so far. From a intuitive exploration over a varied open world and lots of amusing and crazy moments this game got everything that fans love about the series. It's still open how much long-term motivation the map editor and live events will offer but Far Cry Fans will be entertained for about 15-20 hours. PS4
Elite Gamer - Vinny Fanneran 89 ~ 8.9 / 10 A believable but no less intense story with tight gameplay set in a notably detailed and beautiful open world. Ubisoft have done an incredible job of refreshing another of their biggest franchises. XB1
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Max Parker 88 ~ 8.8 / 10 There are few open world games that can match the pure escapism of the "Far Cry" presentation. With a few sanded edges, the gameplay can match that presentation.
IGN Italy - Gianluca Loggia - Italian 86 ~ 8.6 / 10 Far Cry 5, following the steps of the previous episodes, offers a very large map to explore and a lot of things to do, with a good first person shooter experience and interesting action/stealth possibilities. The game is not perfect in all of its aspects, but it's often very funny and always enjoyable, with a very fascinating and unique antagonist. PS4
PowerUp! - Leo Stevenson 85 ~ 8.5 / 10 Far Cry 5 is a brilliantly put together, sandbox game. Its focus remains on the various shades of human sanity, but rather than focus on the easily recognized evils, it forces players to look at a far more insidious kind. PS4
GamesBeat - Jeff Grubb 85 ~ 85 / 100 Far Cry 5 is mechanically sound and varied. You'll find something that entertains you, and Ubisoft has nailed all of the underlying elements of character and world progression. At the same time, it squanders some decent writing because it can't decide what kind of game it is.
Worth Playing - Redmond Carolipio 85 ~ 8.5 / 10 What I found there was a redneck action odyssey I didn't ask for and never knew I wanted, until I found myself in the late hours of the night raiding enemy outposts with a trained bear and a shotgun-bearing pyromaniac. PS4
Xbox Achievements - Richard Walker 85 ~ 85 / 100 From its tense opening to its blistering conclusion, Far Cry 5 is another cracking installment in the series, streamlining some of the hunting elements and putting co-op up front for both the campaign and the bottomless Far Cry Arcade. The narrative and characters will live on in the memory once you're done and dusted too, as will the insane random minute-to-minute moments that always succeed in making Far Cry so unique. XB1
The Games Machine - Ivan Conte - Italian 85 ~ 8.5 / 10 We cannot deny that Far Cry 5 is another "more of the same", warts and all, but the religious fanatic setting is spot-on, and Montana in simply wonderful (and Joseph Seed is one of the best villains the series has ever had). The open-world approach of the game works as usual, and the more you look at it as a big, sumptuous playground, the better. The Arcade mode has a lot, a lot of potential that will show its best in the upcoming weeks and months, when the community will start toying with the powerful editor. Enough as it is, Far Cry 5 is an excellent chapter in the series. PS4
Heavy.com - Collin MacGregor 85 ~ 8.5 / 10 The level of freedom and creativity offered to players alongside the shockingly rich story makes Far Cry 5 an extremely memorable ride. PS4
Gadgets 360 - Rishi Alwani 80 ~ 8 / 10 These issues notwithstanding, Far Cry 5 is a welcome entry in a series that's been consistently entertaining over the years. The campaign is filled with memorable characters, robust progression, and action galore that all combine to make it a treat to play. XB1
Gameblog - Gianni Molinaro - French 80 ~ 8 / 10 It seems like Far Cry 5 tries hard to be different in some ways. But in the end, it is obvious it doesn't want to - it can't - step too far from its predecessors. There's a feeling that even though its world is new, appealling, offers some good tweaks, a magnificient set of allies and villains, and a potentially unlimited content in Arcade mode, we still have the same game flawed with the same A.I. problems, we still complete the same kind of missions and see the same animations. As we sure can have fun and witness a fantastic ending, this can be forgiven. Until next time. PS4
GamesRadar+ - Leon Hurley 80 ~ 4 / 5 stars A polished and refined installment that values your time more than the previous games and keeps the focus on entertaining you throughout.
Spaziogames - Matteo Bussani - Italian 80 ~ 8 / 10 Far Cry 5 brings the player in a Montana Valley controlled by a religious fanatic group . The gameplay is solid and it is related to the past of the series. The game lasts 25 hours, guided by a non-linear storyline, and arcade mode is a solid way to increase the offer of the game. PC
Metro GameCentral - GameCentral 80 ~ 8 / 10 The best Far Cry yet and one of the best open world shooters of any kind, with an impressive variety of missions and non-linear structure. PS4
Zoomg - Mohsen Vaziri - Persian 80 ~ 8 / 10 Far Cry 5 is one of the best entries in this series. Guns for hire is a great addition to the game and the world always have something to offer. If the game had better AI and story had focused only on main antagonist Far Cry 5 could be something like Far Cry 3. PS4
Hardcore Gamer - Chris Shive 80 ~ 4 / 5 Far Cry 5 doesn't deviate too much from the Far Cry formula, simply expanding upon what the series is known for. PS4
M3 - Billy Ekblom - Swedish 80 ~ 8 / 10 Far Cry 5 is an epic soundbox experience, driven by the joy of exploration and all-out chaotic gunplay. It's all good fun, but also very familiar, and we can't help but wonder what would have been if Ubisoft put more story-driven elements into the game. PS4
GamePro - Hannes Rossow 80 ~ 80 / 100 A usual entertaining Far Cry game, that leaves a lot to be desired in terms of villain and story. PS4
GameMAG - xtr - Russian 80 ~ 8 / 10 Far Cry 5 plays best in co-op with a friend thanks to many crazy situations and fun moments. The basic story is not bad, but Ubisoft is copying itself and amount of recycled elements can upset someone. Still, excellent graphics, helicopter missions, treasure hunts and many other things make Far Cry 5 a good game. PS4
GameSkinny - Ty Arthur 80 ~ 8 / 10 Ready to plow through herds of bison with a death tractor and then get into a flamethrower fight before taking some relaxation time to go fishing? That's Far Cry 5 in a nutshell. XB1
Twinfinite - Chris Jecks 80 ~ 8 / 10 Far Cry 5 is exactly that – more Far Cry. If you’ve never been a fan of the series, this doesn’t do anything to change your mind. If you loved liberating outposts and blowing shit up in the Himalayas, you’ll enjoy doing it in Hope County, too. Its sprawling world, varied missions, and memorable characters all make for an incredibly entertaining experience, and helped me to overlook the niggling technical issues and occasional frustrating fetch quests in my 30+ hours in Montana. PS4
Easy Allies - Brandon Jones 80 ~ 8 / 10 Far Cry 5 will try to convince you the world is coming to an end. While the threat of the Eden’s Gate cult is ever-present, what we value most from our time traveling through Hope County are the individual encounters with clever quest-givers, our favorite specialists, or a trusty co-op buddy. It’s a shame the story unnecessarily brings things down to such a dark place, spontaneously interrupting your thrill-seeking pursuits with nothing but bad vibes. Far Cry 5 is like the 4th of July. There’s some serious subject matter being considered, but the experience is mostly about blowing stuff up. PS4
PC Gamer - Christopher Livingston 80 ~ 80 / 100 The wonderful chaos of the open world and your choice of how to tackle it is occasionally stifled by bad boss fights and worse boss speeches. PC
Gamestar - Dimitry Halley - German 79 ~ 79 / 100 Despite the interesting cultist scenario, Far Cry 5 only remains a good shooter with a miserably disappointing story line. PC
Gamersky - 不倒翁蜀黍 - Chinese 78 ~ 7.8 / 10 Playing Ubisoft's Far Cry 5 is just like chewing McDonald's Big Mac. It's really appetizing but never surprises me. I already know what it tastes like before actually biting, considering all the Big Mac are made by the same recipe. So does Far Cry 5. XB1
Game Informer - Jeff Cork 75 ~ 7.5 / 10 Virtually everything about Far Cry 5 is thoroughly okay. For a series that has provided so many thrills and surprises, that's a major disappointment. PS4
Destructoid - Raymond Porreca 75 ~ 7.5 / 10 Far Cry 5 is a solid first-person shooter set in a vibrant, breathtaking location. It plays well, looks great, and is packed with enough content to keep players invested in Hope County for a good, long while. Though Joseph Seed and Eden's Gate work better in theory than in practice, the Montana-based doomsday cult marks a departure for the franchise that pays off. PS4
Areajugones - Pablo Espinosa - Spanish 75 ~ 7.5 / 10 Far Cry 5 is an amazing action game that keeps the essence of the saga. However, its weak plot and map division are elements that make this game inferior to its previous installments. PS4
PlayStation LifeStyle - Chandler Wood 75 ~ 7.5 / 10 Far Cry 5 takes steps forward by upping the stakes with a sinister villain and bold new setting, while also stumbling backwards with its non-linear approach and separation of character progression from the world. PS4
Game Revolution - Jason Faulkner 70 ~ 3.5 / 5 stars If you liked the other Far Cry games, you'll like this one, because it's more of the same. Some of the series conventions have been taken away (like having to climb towers, thank God), or improved, but it's still very much a Far Cry game. PS4
Digitally Downloaded - Ginny W. 70 ~ 3.5 / 5 stars It never really realises the absurdity of the story that its telling even as it leans into absurd humour in plenty of other areas in the game. PS4
Push Square - Glen Fox 70 ~ 7 / 10 The best thing we can say about Far Cry 5 is that it's competent, and the worst that it's far too safe. PS4
Polygon - Ben Kuchera 65 ~ 6.5 / 10 What’s left if you have the stomach to ignore the story? A very enjoyable game with an immense number of things to do, a beautifully recreated portion of the United States, and a collection of missions with wildly varying tones and structure. It’s a finely tuned open-world game stapled onto a story that’s insultingly bad. PS4, XB1, PC
Guardian - Keza MacDonald 60 ~ 3 / 5 stars A mission to save the US from destruction by a charismatic leader flits between flamethrowing fun and graphic torture in a tonally unpredictable vision.
Giant Bomb - Jeff Gerstmann 60 ~ 3 / 5 stars A decent video game undermined by bad pacing, weak characters, and a wishy-washy world view. Play it cooperatively with a friend, ignore the characters and their motivations, and you'll probably have a good time. PC
Slant Magazine - Justin Clark 50 ~ 2.5 / 5 stars Whether intentionally or not, the game gives glory to a brand of grassroots militia fetishism that, just days before the its release, millions of Americans marched in the streets to oppose. Far Cry 5 posits that people would need to be brainwashed to follow men like Joseph Seed, blind to how deep Christian fanaticism already runs, and how many would follow such a man if he only said the word "please." PS4
Edit - I'm trying to put more popular review sites in italics. I'll be playing around with that to make them pop out more for people skimming. Maybe not make them stand out too much so people still give a chance looking at smaller review sites.
submitted by ninjyte to Games [link] [comments]


2018.02.28 16:51 l2t /r/ListenToThis presents the Best Of overlooked music from 2017

Welcome to the /ListenToThis Best Of 2017!
Here there are no scores, no judgments, and no opinions - just obscure music shared by redditors, collected and arranged for you over the course of several months by our dedicated mod team. This list is meant to complement other best of lists on the internet, many of which are linked in the sticky comment below for further discovery.
Set #1 includes everything - the best of the best tracks and a corresponding all-inclusive album playlist. The other sets are the same content, broken up into genre groups so you can listen according to your tastes. There is a sampler (1 track per album) and a full-album (every track from every album) playlist for each group. We’ve also included a listing of the albums by set in this post as not everything is available on Spotify, Tidal, etc. We tried to prefer an artist’s Bandcamp or Soundcloud, but if nothing else was available, you may see Youtube, Spotify, and iTunes links. The final count this year is 226 artists out of more than a thousand submissions.
What did we miss? Share your favorites in the comments… and happy listening..
-- the /ListenToThis hipster facista

Set 1 - The Full Smash

Best Tracks on Spotify & All Albums on Spotify

And, on the other services:

Set 2 - Pop, Indie & Related

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks suckitnewtabs)

Set 3 - Progressive & Related

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks BlueRoseImmortal)

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Set 4 - Hip-Hop, Trip-Hop & Instrumentals

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks firewire_9000)

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Set 5 - Punk & Related

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Set 6 - Electronic & Related

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks firewire_9000)

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Set 7 - Metal

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks BlueRoseImmortal)

Set 8 - Jazz, Soul, Funk & Related

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks firewire_9000)

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Set 9 - Afrobeat, World & Classical

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

Set 10 - Americana & Related

Spotify Sampler & Spotify Albums

Google Sampler & Google Albums

Deezer Sampler & Deezer Albums

Tidal Sampler & Tidal Albums

Apple Music Sampler (thanks firewire_9000)

Youtube Sampler & Youtube Albums

submitted by l2t to listentothis [link] [comments]


2017.10.25 17:23 jaysjep2 Jeopardy! recap for Wed., Oct. 25

Jeopardy! recap for Wed., Oct. 25 - Unimpressive game in which all three DDs were missed and DJ ended with a series of unsolved clues. Champ Nan managed to do a bit more than her opponents and entered FJ with $11,000 vs. $7,400 for Mary Grace and $3,400 for Edgar.
DD1 - FAIRY TALES - An ailing Chinese emperor tells this bird, you have “banished death from my heart, with your sweet song” (Edgar lost $2,000)
DD2 - PROTESTANTISM - In 1960 Geoffrey Fisher, the 99th man in this post, became the first modern one to visit the Vatican (Nan lost $3,200)
DD3 - CANADIAN NATIONAL PARKS - In La Mauricie National Park you can observe this beloved rodent, also the mascot of Parks Canada (Mary Grace lost $1,000)
FJ - AMERICANA - The tiny town of Cayce, Kentucky was the home & supplied the nickname of a man famous in this job
Surprisingly, only Nan was correct on FJ, picking up $3,801 to win with $14,801 and a modest three-day total of $36,601. Mary Grace bet $2,400, while the best strategy would have been to wager $200 or less to shut out Edgar and pick up the win if Nan had missed.
Triple Stumper of the day: Plenty to choose from, and I'll go with no one guessing the two-letter U.S. radio dial dubbed VHF in Europe is FM.
This day in Trebekistan: You could almost hear Alex's heart breaking when it became obvious that none of the players knew a single thing about Canadian national parks.
Correct Qs: DD1 - What is a nightingale? DD2 - Who is the Archbishop of Canterbury? DD3 - What is the beaver? FJ - What is an engineer?
submitted by jaysjep2 to Jeopardy [link] [comments]


2017.06.06 14:29 SIThereAndThere Early Look at the Market – Tues 6.6.17 -**PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT**

J.P. Morgan Early Look at the Market – Tues 6.6.17

find the other bits on /the_street, a /wallstreetbets subsidiary.
PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT

Morning Levels

Trading Update

Top Headlines for Tuesday

Company-specific news update for Mon night.

Calendar of events to watch for the week of Mon June 5

US – economic growth, monetary policy

Europe

Tech Events – calendar of events coming up over the next few weeks

Full catalyst list

  • Wed June 7 – China FX reserve numbers for May (Tues night/Wed morning)
  • Wed June 7 – German factory orders for Apr. 2amET.
  • Wed June 7 – India RBI rate decision. 5amET.
  • Wed June 7 – US consumer credit for Apr. 3pmET.
  • Wed June 7 – analysts meetings: RJF, TAP, WCC
  • Wed June 7 – earnings before the open: BF’b, HOME
  • Wed June 7 – earnings after the close: TLRD, VRNT
  • Wed June 7 - Bank of America Merrill Lynch 2017 Global Technology Conference. June 6-7. San Francisco.
  • Wed June 7 - Jefferies Global Healthcare Conference. June 6-9. NYC.
  • Wed June 7 - RBC Capital Markets Global Energy Conference. June 6-7. NYC.
  • Wed June 7 - REITWeek: NAREIT Investor Forum. June 6-8. NYC.
  • Thurs June 8 – China May imports/exports (Wed night/Thurs morning)
  • Thurs June 8 – German industrial production for Apr. 2amET.
  • Thurs June 8 – ECB meeting (7:45amET statement, 8:30amET press conf.).
  • Thurs June 8 – analyst meetings: AZPN, SYMC
  • Thurs June 8 – earnings before the open: Dell, SJM
  • Thurs June 8 – earnings after the close: CLDR, Hudson’s Bay, PAY
  • Thurs June 8 - Jefferies Global Healthcare Conference. June 6-9. NYC.
  • Thurs June 8 - REITWeek: NAREIT Investor Forum. June 6-8. NYC.
  • Fri June 9 – China May CPI/PPI (Thurs night/Fri morning)
  • Fri June 9 – German imports/exports for Apr. 2amET.
  • Fri June 9 – US wholesale inventories/trade sales for Apr. 10amET.
  • Fri June 9 - Jefferies Global Healthcare Conference. June 6-9. NYC.
  • Mon June 12 – earnings after the close: SAIC
  • Tues June 13 – Eurozone ZEW survey expectations for June. 5amET.
  • Tues June 13 – German ZEW survey results for June. 5amET.
  • Tues June 13 – US PPI for May. 8:30amET.
  • Tues June 13 – Morgan Stanley Financials Conf. June 13-14.
  • Tues June 13 – analyst meetings: PSTG
  • Tues June 13 – earnings after the close: HRB
  • Tues June 13 – Citigroup Industrials Conf. June 13-14. Boston.
  • Tues June 13 - Morgan Stanley Financials Conf. June 13-14.
  • Wed June 14 – China May retail sales, FAI, and IP (Tues night/Wed morning)
  • Wed June 14 – Eurozone industrial production for Apr and Q1 employment data. 5amET.
  • Wed June 14 – US CPI and retail sales for May. 8:30amET.
  • Wed June 14 – US business inventories for Apr. 10amET.
  • Wed June 14 – Fed decision (2pmET statement; 2:30pmET press conf.).
  • Wed June 14 – analyst meetings: Deutsche Boerse, MAT
  • Wed June 14 – earnings after the close: JBL
  • Wed June 14 - Citigroup Industrials Conf. June 13-14. Boston.
  • Wed June 14 - Morgan Stanley Financials Conf. June 13-14.
  • Thurs June 15 – Eurozone trade balance for Apr. 5amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – US Empire Manufacturing for June. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – US import price index for May.
  • Thurs June 15 – US industrial production for May. 9:15amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – NAHB housing market index for June. 10amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – earnings before the open: KR
  • Thurs June 15 – earnings after the close: FNSR
  • Fri June 16 – Eurozone May new auto registrations. 2amET.
  • Fri June 16 – Eurozone labor costs for Q1 and CPI for May. 5amET.
  • Fri June 16 – BOJ rate decision (Thurs night/Fri morning)
  • Fri June 16 – US housing starts/building permits for May. 8:30amET.
  • Fri June 16 – US Michigan Confidence for June. 10amET.
  • Fri June 16 – analyst meetings: GLW
  • Mon June 19 – China May property prices (Sun night/Mon morning)
  • Mon June 19 – Eurozone construction output for Apr. 5amET.
  • Tues June 20 – Fed speakers: Kaplan
  • Tues June 20 – analyst meetings: ADI, EXLS, GE (at Paris Airshow)
  • Tues June 20 – earnings after the close: ADBE, FDX
  • Wed June 21 – US existing home sales for May. 10amET.
  • Wed June 21 – earnings before the open: KMX
  • Wed June 21 – earnings after the close: ORCL
  • Thurs June 22 – ECB publishes economic bulletin. 4amET.
  • Thurs June 22 – Eurozone consumer confidence for June. 10amET.
  • Thurs June 22 – US FHFA home prices for Apr. 9amET.
  • Thurs June 22 – analyst meetings: V
  • Fri June 23 – Eurozone flash PMIs for June. 4amET.
  • Fri June 23 – US flash PMIs for June. 9:45amET.
  • Fri June 23 – US new home sales for May. 10amET.
  • Fri June 23 – Fed speakers: Mester
  • Tues June 27 – China May industrial profits (Mon night/Tues morning)
  • Wed June 28 – earnings before the open: MON
submitted by SIThereAndThere to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]


2017.06.06 14:20 SIThereAndThere Early Look at the Market – Tues 6.6.17 -**PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT**

J.P. Morgan Early Look at the Market – Tues 6.6.17

PLEASE DO NOT FORWARD THIS DOCUMENT

Morning Levels

Trading Update

Top Headlines for Tuesday

Company-specific news update for Mon night.

Calendar of events to watch for the week of Mon June 5

US – economic growth, monetary policy

Europe

Tech Events – calendar of events coming up over the next few weeks

Full catalyst list

  • Wed June 7 – China FX reserve numbers for May (Tues night/Wed morning)
  • Wed June 7 – German factory orders for Apr. 2amET.
  • Wed June 7 – India RBI rate decision. 5amET.
  • Wed June 7 – US consumer credit for Apr. 3pmET.
  • Wed June 7 – analysts meetings: RJF, TAP, WCC
  • Wed June 7 – earnings before the open: BF’b, HOME
  • Wed June 7 – earnings after the close: TLRD, VRNT
  • Wed June 7 - Bank of America Merrill Lynch 2017 Global Technology Conference. June 6-7. San Francisco.
  • Wed June 7 - Jefferies Global Healthcare Conference. June 6-9. NYC.
  • Wed June 7 - RBC Capital Markets Global Energy Conference. June 6-7. NYC.
  • Wed June 7 - REITWeek: NAREIT Investor Forum. June 6-8. NYC.
  • Thurs June 8 – China May imports/exports (Wed night/Thurs morning)
  • Thurs June 8 – German industrial production for Apr. 2amET.
  • Thurs June 8 – ECB meeting (7:45amET statement, 8:30amET press conf.).
  • Thurs June 8 – analyst meetings: AZPN, SYMC
  • Thurs June 8 – earnings before the open: Dell, SJM
  • Thurs June 8 – earnings after the close: CLDR, Hudson’s Bay, PAY
  • Thurs June 8 - Jefferies Global Healthcare Conference. June 6-9. NYC.
  • Thurs June 8 - REITWeek: NAREIT Investor Forum. June 6-8. NYC.
  • Fri June 9 – China May CPI/PPI (Thurs night/Fri morning)
  • Fri June 9 – German imports/exports for Apr. 2amET.
  • Fri June 9 – US wholesale inventories/trade sales for Apr. 10amET.
  • Fri June 9 - Jefferies Global Healthcare Conference. June 6-9. NYC.
  • Mon June 12 – earnings after the close: SAIC
  • Tues June 13 – Eurozone ZEW survey expectations for June. 5amET.
  • Tues June 13 – German ZEW survey results for June. 5amET.
  • Tues June 13 – US PPI for May. 8:30amET.
  • Tues June 13 – Morgan Stanley Financials Conf. June 13-14.
  • Tues June 13 – analyst meetings: PSTG
  • Tues June 13 – earnings after the close: HRB
  • Tues June 13 – Citigroup Industrials Conf. June 13-14. Boston.
  • Tues June 13 - Morgan Stanley Financials Conf. June 13-14.
  • Wed June 14 – China May retail sales, FAI, and IP (Tues night/Wed morning)
  • Wed June 14 – Eurozone industrial production for Apr and Q1 employment data. 5amET.
  • Wed June 14 – US CPI and retail sales for May. 8:30amET.
  • Wed June 14 – US business inventories for Apr. 10amET.
  • Wed June 14 – Fed decision (2pmET statement; 2:30pmET press conf.).
  • Wed June 14 – analyst meetings: Deutsche Boerse, MAT
  • Wed June 14 – earnings after the close: JBL
  • Wed June 14 - Citigroup Industrials Conf. June 13-14. Boston.
  • Wed June 14 - Morgan Stanley Financials Conf. June 13-14.
  • Thurs June 15 – Eurozone trade balance for Apr. 5amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – US Empire Manufacturing for June. 8:30amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – US import price index for May.
  • Thurs June 15 – US industrial production for May. 9:15amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – NAHB housing market index for June. 10amET.
  • Thurs June 15 – earnings before the open: KR
  • Thurs June 15 – earnings after the close: FNSR
  • Fri June 16 – Eurozone May new auto registrations. 2amET.
  • Fri June 16 – Eurozone labor costs for Q1 and CPI for May. 5amET.
  • Fri June 16 – BOJ rate decision (Thurs night/Fri morning)
  • Fri June 16 – US housing starts/building permits for May. 8:30amET.
  • Fri June 16 – US Michigan Confidence for June. 10amET.
  • Fri June 16 – analyst meetings: GLW
  • Mon June 19 – China May property prices (Sun night/Mon morning)
  • Mon June 19 – Eurozone construction output for Apr. 5amET.
  • Tues June 20 – Fed speakers: Kaplan
  • Tues June 20 – analyst meetings: ADI, EXLS, GE (at Paris Airshow)
  • Tues June 20 – earnings after the close: ADBE, FDX
  • Wed June 21 – US existing home sales for May. 10amET.
  • Wed June 21 – earnings before the open: KMX
  • Wed June 21 – earnings after the close: ORCL
  • Thurs June 22 – ECB publishes economic bulletin. 4amET.
  • Thurs June 22 – Eurozone consumer confidence for June. 10amET.
  • Thurs June 22 – US FHFA home prices for Apr. 9amET.
  • Thurs June 22 – analyst meetings: V
  • Fri June 23 – Eurozone flash PMIs for June. 4amET.
  • Fri June 23 – US flash PMIs for June. 9:45amET.
  • Fri June 23 – US new home sales for May. 10amET.
  • Fri June 23 – Fed speakers: Mester
  • Tues June 27 – China May industrial profits (Mon night/Tues morning)
  • Wed June 28 – earnings before the open: MON
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2016.12.09 00:59 HailCorporateRobot Ads for 2016-12-08 (2 / 2)

Subreddit Title Brand
explainlikeimfive ELI5:Why Blizzard acquired Candy Crush for USD6billion? Why Microsoft acquired Linked-in for USD26billion? Why Uber is valued at more than USD50billion? Uber
Showerthoughts Amazon's becoming the Walmart of the Internet Walmart
dataisbeautiful Voter representation in the United States: How a growing population is making Congress and the Electoral College a worse and worse representation of the people OC United
pics Sunrise overlooking the Halifax harbour Halifax
Showerthoughts In a Lego universe, Facebook would need a different "Like" icon. Facebook
Showerthoughts In a Lego universe, Facebook would need a different "Like" icon. Lego
movies Remember Screening Room? Apple Supposedly Mulling An iTunes-Based Alternative Apple
personalfinance Getting my first credit card, credit is not that great. Should I go with Capital One Platinum or Amazon Store card? Capital One
news FTC Providing Over $88 Million in Refunds to AT&T Customers Who Were Subjected to Mobile Cramming AT&T
funny I don't have Facebook because I don't know how to use it Facebook
AskReddit What is the most cringy interaction you've witnessed on Facebook or other social media sites? Facebook
dataisbeautiful Circumcision in the United States United
AskReddit 70's had The Pet Rock, 80's had the friendship bracelet, 90's had Tamagotchi. 2000's had MySpace/Facebook, 2010's had Twitter and Instagram, what fads do you guys think will fade away in the 2020's and what fads do you think will become a thing? Twitter
videos Unbelievable! Rock selling for $85 at NORDSTROM SOLD OUT. NORDSTROM
worldnews Supreme Court president: Court won't overturn Brexit vote - BBC News BBC
news FTC Providing Over $88 Million in Refunds to AT&T Customers Who Were Subjected to Mobile Cramming AT&T
aww My Orange Winged Amazon enjoying the shower Orange
nottheonion FTC Providing Over $88 Million in Refunds to AT&T Customers Who Were Subjected to Mobile Cramming AT&T
gaming Gigantic Open Beta live now for Windows 10 and Xbox One Xbox
gaming Shadowrun is BC on Xbox One. The best FPS people never played. Xbox
listentothis Opus Orange & Emy Reynolds -- Mercy Street cover of Peter Gabriel Folk/Indie 2011 Orange
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pics This Southwest employee in San Diego is my hero. He brought my laptop to my hotel after I left it on the plane. Southwest
Showerthoughts It feels weird when you realise the EM spectrum equivalent of a speaker is the Philips hue bulb. Philips
todayilearned TIL Google's search algorithm is actually a patent of Stanford University. Google acquired exclusive licence rights in return for 1.8 million shares of stock, which Stanford sold in 2005. Google
gaming In what ways are the PS4 and Xbox 1 different, in terms of software/programming? What are the upsides and downsides of these differences? Xbox
todayilearned TIL that Nev Schulman's Of the MTV show Catfish brother and his friend not only directed the original Catfish movie about Nev, but also directed Paranormal Activity 3 & 4. The duo also directed the movie Nerve, which stars Dave Franco and Emma Roberts. MTV
explainlikeimfive ELI5:Will taxing corporations make businesses leave the United States? United
explainlikeimfive ELI5:How to use the extension "Context" in Google Chrome Google
funny Look at this amazing picture I drew of the Apple Store! Apple
AskReddit If United State of America collapses, who will be next power? United
videos How Facebook and Google make money. Hint: Selling our info to advertisers Google
videos How Facebook and Google make money. Hint: Selling our info to advertisers Facebook
Showerthoughts Reddit is a showcase of information and ideas. Instagram is a showcase of personality. Facebook is a showcase of ignorance. Facebook
science 'Beautiful' dinosaur tail found preserved in amber - BBC News BBC
explainlikeimfive ELI5: How can Google track different Users accross multiple accounts and their typing speed? Google
AskReddit Serious Redditors of the United States, how are Hiroshima & Nagasaki viewed & taught nowadays? United
funny I think Apple Music is racist... Apple
television The Beast lost his cool on The Chase this evening Chase
news German firms including BMW pull advertising from Breitbart BMW
todayilearned TIL that steve jobs banned s banned all publications from publisher John Wiley & Sons from Apple retail stores as a retribution for publishing this unauthorized biography "iCon" Apple
worldnews Tsunami warning: Solomons 7.7 quake prompts alert - BBC News BBC
news Teen was on Facebook Live during crash that killed her, pal Facebook
news Teen was on Facebook Live during crash that killed her, pal Facebook
pics My mom was just shopping at Walmart and sent me this picture Walmart
space My closeup photos from last night's Delta IV rocket launch and the damage it caused to my lens. Delta
Showerthoughts Nothing encapsulates the experiences of love quite like Bonnie Tyler and Meatloaf do in Total Eclipse of the Heart Total
news Lawsuit: Man dies of emotional distress after being forced to clean Walgreens bathroom Walgreens
todayilearned TIL in 1996, Pfizer may have killed 50 kids in Nigeria while improperly testing experimental anti-meningitis drugs Pfizer
funny so I got on Facebook for the first time in awhile and quickly decided to get off Facebook soon after Facebook
news 'Beautiful' dinosaur tail found preserved in amber - BBC News BBC
nottheonion 'I'm on the toilet': McDonald's drive-thru hacked McDonald's
pics You just KNOW the Walmart guy did this intentionally... Walmart
personalfinance Taxes on automatic reallocation in Vanguard Target Date funds vs taxes on holding the underlying funds and reallocating yourself Target
Showerthoughts For April Fool's, Google Chrome should get rid of the "delete history" button Google
WritingPrompts WP The entire town of Point Roberts, Washington, an exclave of the United States only accessible by boat or road through Canada, has been used as a hiding place for the Witness Protection Program for years. You're the first normal person to move in in decades. United
funny Two United Airlines pilots fighting on actual ATC frequency San Francisco - 12/6/16 United
gifs Out of all the video I've taken of our new puppy, this is what Google Photos automatically made into an animation Google
sports Zorya 0-1 Man Utd: Mkhitaryan scores his first United goal United
videos The World In 2050 The Real Future Of Earth - Full BBC Documentary HD BBC
videos [How To Use Camtasia Studio 8 Full Tutorial Overview Youtube Full Course part-06](https://www.reddit.com/videos/comments/5h8vf7/how_to_use_camtasia_studio_8_full_tutorial/)
funny Who can afford Pepsi anymore!? Pepsi
AskReddit Have you ever had a bonding experience with your Uber driver? What happened? Uber
news Tsunami warning: Solomons 7.7 quake prompts alert - BBC News BBC
Showerthoughts A Youtube video with likes and dislikes disabled gives me a worse first impression than a video with lots of dislikes. Youtube
worldnews Major Nike supplier to exit China - expands Vietnam footprint, explores US production Nike
pics mMads Mikkelsen eyeliner VS Toyota 4Runners eyeliner. Who wore it better? Toyota
listentothis Mandolin Orange -- Hey Stranger folk / Americana 2016 Orange
news Lawsuit claims elderly man died after Walgreens employees made him mop bathroom Walgreens
mildlyinteresting When you ask for an ice-cream cone and Burger King hands you this... Burger King
news Girl takes $300 Uber ride to go 1.5 miles after drinking Uber
Jokes Is Google male or female? Google
personalfinance Does Chase credit card purchase protection also kick in if a part of the product price was purchased with a gift card? Chase
AskReddit Starbucks workers and Starbucks customers, is that app tip feature used frequently compared to tipping when paying cash at other coffee shops? Starbucks
AskReddit What are your thoughts on Youtube Rewind and Youtube in general this year? Youtube
philosophy The philsophy of Science has experience fighting fake news — and Facebook should take note Facebook
news Space pioneer John Glenn dies - BBC News BBC
Futurology Microsoft outlines future mixed reality and cellular PCs with Intel and Qualcomm partnerships Intel
Futurology Microsoft outlines future mixed reality and cellular PCs with Intel and Qualcomm partnerships Qualcomm
news Space pioneer John Glenn dies - BBC News BBC
news John Glenn death: Pioneering US astronaut was 95 - BBC News BBC
EarthPorn River near Canela, RS, Brazil, by Emerson Ozueira 1280x848 Emerson
videos How This Sea Shell Knows the Weather in Greenland Shell
worldnews John Glenn death: Pioneering US astronaut was 95 - BBC News BBC
WritingPrompts RF The world is destroyed and only Facebook remains. Facebook
Showerthoughts In Lego you can connect everything to each other as if they have roots. Except the tree pieces. They are the only items without roots. Lego
WritingPrompts WP The world is Destroyed, only Facebook remains. Facebook
Showerthoughts Asking someone if they use a Mac or a PC is like asking someone if the drive a BMW or a car. BMW
AskReddit What's a goo name for a black 2016 Hyundai Elantra with dark tints? Hyundai
pics John Glenn aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States senator dies at 95 United
worldnews Islamic State 'has lost 50,000 fighters' over two years - BBC News BBC
mildlyinteresting Miniature Nike Shoebox that comes with their gift cards. Nike
todayilearned TIL: After receiving MANY UPS shipped packages to my PO box over the years, UPS doesn't do that anymore. UPS
gaming Halo 3 Xbox 360 Case Xbox
Showerthoughts With all the things Youtube does wrong, I want to take a moment to thank Youtube for how easy it is to find the song I want, even if the only part I remember is "I'm blue da ba deee da badaaa". Youtube
Music I'm a day late, but December 7th is the date that Remote Control premiered on MTV in 1987. {Non-Music Video} MTV
gaming Halo 3 Xbox 360 Case Xbox
funny Walking through Target with my sensitive daughter and i see this...I bust out laughing while she's talking...she gets mad at me cause i'm laughing at her 11 year old problems. Target
Music YouTube's $1bn royalties are not enough, says music industry - BBC News BBC
videos THE REAL Youtube Rewind 2016 Youtube
worldnews Human rights standards worldwide are under "unprecedented pressure", the UN said Thursday, warning that "the rhetoric of fascism" was becoming commonplace in parts of Europe and the United States. United
mildlyinteresting This Dried Apple Still Has The Sticker On It Apple
Showerthoughts How much more organized would the internet be if Google and other search engines never existed? Google
pics I arranged the salad dressings at Kroger so the flavors formed a sentence. Kroger
Showerthoughts Whoever designed the Costco milk jugs should be waterboarded... Costco
movies A United Kingdom Official Trailer 1 - David Oyelowo and Rosamund Pike United
LifeProTips LPT: When you're not sure about the translation of a word when using Google Translate, go to the Wikipedia page of that word in your own language and just change the language of the Wiki page. Google
funny TIL Google doesn't know music genres. Google
aww Lady and Inmate snuggling for warmth old Shih Tzu and young Orange Tabby Orange
videos All Easter Eggs in Youtube Rewind 2016 Youtube
todayilearned TIL that Mr. Rogers mother knit all the sweaters he wore on his show. Rogers
Futurology A Chinese Internet Giant Enters the AI Race - Tencent, which provides the immensely popular mobile app WeChat along with games and entertainment content, is determined to build a formidable AI lab. WeChat
Futurology Astro Teller head of X, formerly called Google X, the advanced technology lab of Alphabet, leads a group of engineers, inventors, and designers devoted to futuristic “moonshot” projects like self-driving cars, delivery drones, and Internet-beaming balloons. Google
funny Apparently there are such things as a cumshot editor that supposedly has Adobe Photoshop quality.... lol Adobe
pics Cotton Candy Sky in SC Sky
AskReddit How can one person single-handedly cause a recession in the United States? United
Showerthoughts I'm at my lowest when I'm on already on Facebook and I type "facebook..." into the browser Facebook
AskReddit What do you think healthcare in the United States will look like in 5-10 years? United
explainlikeimfive ELI5: What exactly happens to an Apple device when someone Jailbreaks it? Apple
personalfinance Transferring joint stock account with Wells Fargo Shareowner Services Wells Fargo
Showerthoughts The problem isn't the news you can find on Facebook, it's that you're on Facebook to find your news. Facebook
gifs Operation Teapot: Apple II Nuclear Test Apple
todayilearned TIL that Shaquille O’Neal is an accomplished entrepreneur and had Google stock before the company went public Google
videos Black woman kicked out of Victoria's Secret in Oxford, AL because of her race Victoria's Secret
nottheonion Today, an electrical fire broke out in the Electrical Engineering building sponsored by Emerson Electric Co. at Missouri University of Science & Technology. Emerson
worldnews Norwich Sikh man honored by the United State's FBI for promoting tolerance United
AskReddit What would be the worst Gatorade flavor? Gatorade
mildlyinteresting No late fees if you pay on time. Thanks Discover card!? Discover
movies Saw this on Twitter under the hashtag #DumpStarWars. I just can't with these people. Twitter
videos An oddball 15 minute comedy - Total Awesome Viking Power Total
television Mr. Rogers defends $20 million in federal funding for PBS to the Senate in 1969, successfully persuading an openly hostile Senator in a matter of minutes. Rogers
gaming Call of Duty: Infinite Warfare for Xbox One and PS4 is on sale at Walmart. Xbox
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2016.03.22 15:07 lyrrael Proposed Magical Realism Recommendation List - thoughts welcome!

I'm going to be working on a series of these recommendation lists, and so I'm really looking forward to your positive criticism and thoughtful suggestions. Included herein are a proposed definition of the subgenre, and a number of recommendations.
To be very honest here, I'm not a huge reader of magical realism, so I need to know if some of these don't fit with the defined subgenre or if I've missed something that should absolutely be included in this list as an introduction to the subgenre. I'm also looking for your help with the elevator pitches for each of these books -- again, not a huge reader of magical realism, so I had to base them off the Goodreads description, and some of them are excessively long. I did try to pick a variety of books from the standards of the genre to some that are seriously underread -- that's part of the purpose of a recommendation list, is it not? Finally, I'd like your thoughts on the length of this list: is it too long, too short? I'm still accepting critiques of the definition we put together yesterday, too. :)
Edit: Just thought y'all'd like to see the flowchart that this goes with:
Second edit: We've hit our 30 book limit. Any more books must come with a book to replace and a justification for it!
Magical Realism
Magical realism has magic or something unusual that is ancillary to the story, but that the story could not exist without, with most elements based on reality. Magical realism deals with the fantastical without breaking the realist tone: it treats the ordinary and the extraordinary in the same way. It is usually contemporary or set in a real world setting. This subgenre often ends up being more literary than mythic fantasy, which concentrates on the magic of the world, though there is some crossover between the two genres.
Your launch points from the flowchart were:
Further reading:
  1. Chocolat by Joanne Harris - Chocolat is an enchanting novel about a small French town turned upside down by the arrival of a bewitching chocolate confectioner, Vianne Rocher, and her spirited young daughter.
  2. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. One Hundred Years of Solitude is the story of seven generations of the Buendía Family in the town of Macondo, which becomes a town frequented by unusual and extraordinary events that involve the generations of the Buendía family, who are unable or unwilling to escape their periodic (mostly self-inflicted) misfortunes.
  3. The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka - The story of a young man who, transformed overnight into a giant beetle-like insect, becomes an object of disgrace to his family, an outsider in his own home, a quintessentially alienated man.
  4. Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie - Born at the stroke of midnight, at the precise moment of India's independence, Saleem Sinai is destined from birth to be special. For he is one of 1,001 children born in the midnight hour, children who all have special gifts, children with whom Saleem is telepathically linked. But there has been a terrible mix up at birth, and Saleem’s life takes some unexpected twists and turns. As he grows up amidst a whirlwind of triumphs and disasters, Saleem must learn the ominous consequences of his gift, for the course of his life is inseparably linked to that of his motherland, and his every act is mirrored and magnified in the events that shape the newborn nation of India. It is a great gift, and a terrible burden.
  5. Red Sorghum by Mo Yan. Spanning three generations, this novel of family and myth is told through a series of flashbacks that depict events of staggering horror set against a landscape of gemlike beauty, as the Chinese battle both Japanese invaders and each other in the turbulent 1930s.
  6. The Hundred Secret Senses by Amy Tan - Olivia Laguni is half-Chinese, but typically American in her uneasiness with her patchwork family. And no one in Olivia's family is more embarrassing to her than her half-sister, Kwan Li. For Kwan speaks mangled English, is cheerfully deaf to Olivia's sarcasm, and sees the dead with her "yin eyes." Even as Olivia details the particulars of her decades-long grudge against her sister (who, among other things, is a source of infuriatingly good advice), Kwan Li is telling her own story, one that sweeps us into the splendor, squalor, and violence of Manchu China.
  7. Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esqueval - A sumptuous feast of a novel, it relates the bizarre history of the all-female De La Garza family. Tita, the youngest daughter of the house, has been forbidden to marry, condemned by Mexican tradition to look after her mother until she dies. But Tita falls in love with Pedro, and he is seduced by the magical food she cooks. In desperation, Pedro marries her sister Rosaura so that he can stay close to her, so that Tita and Pedro are forced to circle each other in unconsummated passion. Only a freakish chain of tragedies, bad luck and fate finally reunite them against all the odds.
  8. The Rabbit Back Literature Society by Pasi Ilmari Jääskeläinen - A highly contagious book virus, a literary society and a Snow Queen-like disappearing author 'She came to realise that under one reality there's always another. And another one under that.' Only very special people are chosen by children's author Laura White to join 'The Society', an elite group of writers in the small town of Rabbit Back. Now a tenth member has been selected: Ella, literature teacher and possessor of beautifully curving lips. But soon Ella discovers that the Society is not what it seems.
  9. Bone Clocks by David Mitchell - In 1984, teenager Holly Sykes runs away from home, a Gravesend pub. Sixty years later, she is to be found in the far west of Ireland, raising a granddaughter as the world’s climate collapses. In between, Holly is encountered as a barmaid in a Swiss resort by an undergraduate sociopath in 1991; has a child with a foreign correspondent covering the Iraq War in 2003; and, widowed, becomes the confidante of a self-obsessed author of fading powers and reputation during the present decade. Yet these changing personae are only part of the story, as Holly’s life is repeatedly intersected by a slow-motion war between a cult of predatory soul-decanters and a band of vigilantes led by one Doctor Marinus. Holly begins as an unwitting pawn in this war – but may prove to be its decisive weapon.
  10. Orlando by Virginia Woolf - Spanning three centuries, the novel opens as Orlando, a young nobleman in Elizabeth’s England, awaits a visit from the Queen and traces his experience with first love as England under James I lies locked in the embrace of the Great Frost. At the midpoint of the novel, Orlando, now an ambassador in Costantinople, awakes to find that he is a woman, and the novel indulges in farce and irony to consider the roles of women in the 18th and 19th centuries. As the novel ends in 1928, a year consonant with full suffrage for women. Orlando, now a wife and mother, stands poised at the brink of a future that holds new hope and promise for women.
  11. Kafka by the Shore by Haruki Murakami - Kafka on the Shore is powered by two remarkable characters: a teenage boy, Kafka Tamura, and an aging simpleton called Nakata. Their odyssey, as mysterious to them as it is to us, is enriched throughout by vivid accomplices and mesmerizing events. Cats and people carry on conversations, a ghostlike pimp employs a Hegel-quoting prostitute, a forest harbors soldiers apparently unaged since World War II, and rainstorms of fish (and worse) fall from the sky. There is a brutal murder, with the identity of both victim and perpetrator a riddle - yet this, along with everything else, is eventually answered, just as the entwined destinies of Kafka and Nakata are gradually revealed, with one escaping his fate entirely and the other given a fresh start on his own.
  12. The Famished Road by Ben Okri - The narrator, Azaro, is an abiku, a spirit child, who in the Yoruba tradition of Nigeria exists between life and death. The life he foresees for himself and the tale he tells is full of sadness and tragedy, but inexplicably he is born with a smile on his face. Nearly called back to the land of the dead, he is resurrected. But in their efforts to save their child, Azaro's loving parents are made destitute. The tension between the land of the living, with its violence and political struggles, and the temptations of the carefree kingdom of the spirits propels this latter-day Lazarus's story.
  13. Life After Life by Kate Atkinson - On a cold and snowy night in 1910, Ursula Todd is born, the third child of a wealthy English banker and his wife. Sadly, she dies before she can draw her first breath. On that same cold and snowy night, Ursula Todd is born, lets out a lusty wail, and embarks upon a life that will be, to say the least, unusual. For as she grows, she also dies, repeatedly, in any number of ways. Clearly history (and Kate Atkinson) have plans for her: In Ursula rests nothing less than the fate of civilization.
  14. Some Kind of Fairy Tale by Graham Joyce - It is Christmas afternoon and Peter Martin gets an unexpected phone call from his parents, asking him to come round. It pulls him away from his wife and children and into a bewildering mystery. He arrives at his parents house and discovers that they have a visitor. His sister Tara. Not so unusual you might think, this is Christmas after all, a time when families get together. But twenty years ago Tara took a walk into the woods and never came back and as the years have gone by with no word from her the family have, unspoken, assumed that she was dead. Now she's back, tired, dirty, disheveled, but happy and full of stories about twenty years spent traveling the world, an epic odyssey taken on a whim.
  15. Trash, Sex, Magic by Jennifer Stevenson - Raedawn Summer's family lives in a bunch of trailers on the edge of the river. When a predatory developer tries to get them to move, strange things happen, because the Summers have always been different.
  16. Winter's Tale by Mark Helprin - A love letter to the New York City of the past, and of (at the time of the book's publication) the future. At times exhilarating, at others heartbreaking, simultaneously full of wry humor and grand vision. Vault into the cold, clear air across a frozen, fabulous time of love and laughter with Peter Lake, master thief, and his flying white horse. Thunder toward the 21st century, leading lunatics, lovers, rascals, and dreamers over snowdrifts, through raging storms, furious battles, walls of ice and pillars of fire, to the golden city of our glorious future.
  17. The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov - Combining two distinct yet interwoven parts—one set in ancient Jerusalem, one in contemporary Moscow—the novel veers from moods of wild theatricality with violent storms, vampire attacks, and a Satanic ball; to such somber scenes as the meeting of Pilate and Yeshua, and the murder of Judas in the moonlit garden of Gethsemane; to the substanceless, circus-like reality of Moscow.
  18. The War of Don Emmanuel's Nether Parts by Louis de Berniere - A spicy olla podrida of a novel, set in a fictitious Latin American country, with all the tragedy, ribaldry, and humor Bernières can muster from a debauched military, a clueless oligarchy, and an unconventional band of guerrillas. There's a plague of laughing, a flood of magical cats, and a torture-happy colonel. The cities, villages, politics, and discourse are an inspired amalgam of Latin Americana, but the comedy, horror, adventure, and vibrant individuals are pure de Bernières.
  19. The Arabian Nightmare by Robert Irwin. Balian, a insomniac Christian traveller in medieval Cairo, gets drawn deeper and deeper into the mazelike and dreamlike city, meeting or dreaming stories within stories and fantastic characters.
  20. Quin's Shanghai Circus by Edward Whittenmore - On a winter's day, some twenty years after the end of the Second World War, a huge, smiling fat man wearing a black bowler hat and a military greatcoat and known as Geraty walked into a bar in the Bronx bearing his name and picked the pocket of a young man named Quin, thereby setting in motion a series of events that was to culminate in the largest funeral procession held in Asia since the thirteenth century.
  21. Ceremony by Leslie Marmon Silko - Tayo, a young Native American, has been a prisoner of the Japanese during World War II, and the horrors of captivity have almost eroded his will to survive. His return to the Laguna Pueblo reservation only increases his feeling of estrangement and alienation. While other returning soldiers find easy refuge in alcohol and senseless violence, Tayo searches for another kind of comfort and resolution.Tayo's quest leads him back to the Indian past and its traditions, to beliefs about witchcraft and evil, and to the ancient stories of his people. The search itself becomes a ritual, a curative ceremony that defeats the most virulent of afflictions—despair.
  22. The Aleph by Jorge Luis Borges - akes us inside the minds of an unrepentant Nazi, an imprisoned Mayan priest, fanatical Christian theologians, a woman plotting vengeance on her father’s “killer,” and a man awaiting his assassin in a Buenos Aires guest house.
  23. The Green Mile by Stephen King - At Cold Mountain Penitentiary, along the lonely stretch of cells known as the Green Mile, killers are depraved as the psychopathic "Billy the Kid" Wharton and the possessed Eduard Delacroix await death strapped in "Old Sparky." Here guards as decent as Paul Edgecombe and as sadistic as Percy Wetmore watch over them. But good or evil, innocent or guilty, none have ever seen the brutal likes of the new prisoner, John Coffey, sentenced to death for raping and murdering two young girls. Is Coffey a devil in human form? Or is he a far, far different kind of being?
  24. Beloved by Toni Morrison - Sethe was born a slave and escaped to Ohio, but eighteen years later she is still not free. She has too many memories of Sweet Home, the beautiful farm where so many hideous things happened. Her new home is haunted by the ghost of her baby, who died nameless and whose tombstone is engraved with a single word: Beloved.
  25. The Kingdom of This World by Alejo Carpentier - A few years after its liberation from French colonialist rule, Haiti experienced a period of unsurpassed brutality, horror, and superstition under the reign of the black King Henri-Christophe. Through the eyes of the ancient slave Ti-Noel, The Kingdom of This World records the destruction of the black regime--built on the same corruption and contempt for human life that brought down the French--in an orgy of voodoo, race hatred, erotomania, and fantastic grandeurs of false elegance.
  26. Tropic of Orange by Karen Tei Yamashita - Features an Asian-American television news executive, Emi, and a Latino newspaper reporter, Gabriel, who are so focused on chasing stories they almost don't notice that the world is falling apart all around them.
  27. Beauty is a Wound by Eka Kurinawan - The epic novel Beauty Is a Wound combines history, satire, family tragedy, legend, humor, and romance in a sweeping polyphony. The beautiful Indo prostitute Dewi Ayu and her four daughters are beset by incest, murder, bestiality, rape, insanity, monstrosity, and the often vengeful undead. Kurniawan's gleefully grotesque hyperbole functions as a scathing critique of his young nation's troubled past: the rapacious offhand greed of colonialism; the chaotic struggle for independence; the 1965 mass murders of perhaps a million "Communists," followed by three decades of Suharto's despotic rule.
  28. Last Call by Tim Powers - Set in Las Vegas, Last Call concerns the fate of Scott Crane, former professional gambler, recent widower, blind in one eye--and also the lost natural son of the man who is determined to kill him. In this novel, Crane is forced to resume the high-stakes game of a lifetime--and wager it all.
  29. Wizard of the Crow by Ngugi wa Thiong'o - Commencing in “our times” and set in the “Free Republic of Aburĩria,” the novel dramatizes with corrosive humor and keenness of observation a battle for control of the souls of the Aburĩrian people. Among the contenders: His High Mighty Excellency; the eponymous Wizard, an avatar of folklore and wisdom; the corrupt Christian Ministry; and the nefarious Global Bank. Fashioning the stories of the powerful and the ordinary into a dazzling mosaic, Wizard of the Crow reveals humanity in all its endlessly surprising complexity.
  30. The Tin Drum by Gunter Grass - On his third birthday Oskar decides to stop growing. Haunted by the deaths of his parents and wielding his tin drum Oskar recounts the events of his extraordinary life; from the long nightmare of the Nazi era to his anarchic adventures in post-war Germany.
Changelog (based on recommendations from comments):
submitted by lyrrael to Fantasy [link] [comments]


2015.12.28 05:31 Whisgo Day 1-3 Roadtrip up the CA Coast

We started in Orange County California. Went up the I-5 through the grapevine Christmas Day (little to no traffic due to holiday) and hit the Maricopa Hwy (rt166) across to hwy 33 - which we didn't know was called the Petroleum hwy. This was awesome! Open road... interesting landscape... oil dregs. Better than the boring agriculture stretch of I-5 by far. Eventually we got to Blackwell's Corner - which is said to be the last stop for James Dean before his fatal auto accident. They have two big sign mural things... great photo opt... why not? Very Americana.
We continued on our way up hwy 33 through to Coalinga. From there we took rt 198 to rt 25 through some of the most amazing driving - hills, turns... valleys... beautiful weather...
rt 25 took us up through Gilroy and we made our way through San Francisco to cross the Golden Gate Bridge. Lots of people there for the holiday. Traffic was a bit slow, but we weren't in a huge rush. Our first night was spent in Petaluma CA. Just north of San Francisco.
Christmas night we decided to find a chinese food restaurant that may be open. Seemed oddly appropriate. We found one! While waiting for the host to seat us, two ladies came in and we joked about how busy they seemed for Christmas. Two of them were locals. We decided we would all sit at a single table to spare the need for two tables and plus it was nice to have the company. Made some lasting friends as we talked away the evening with these strangers we now called friends.
The next day we hit up the Charles Shchulz museum. They have a really nice museum with so much history and cool displays of the peanuts comic strip, show and it's creator. Next to the museum they have the Snoopy Home Ice Rink. So what would an epic Christmas Road Trip be without ice skating and hot cocoa?
After a good free skate workout, we ventured off to the country to check out the Jack London State Park - Call of the Wild author built an amazing homestead on the grounds. The museum is filled with artifacts from the his collection. Mr. London was an avid adventurer... and I was left with the overwhelming sense of wonderment - to create you must experience. Adventure is so important!
The next morning we left Petaluma and darted over to the coast. Picked up rt 1 at Bodego Bay. The coastal road was windy as to be expected. Lots of farms with cows sheep and horses along the way. Reminded me of my time spent in the Azores or in Ireland. We headed up the coast for some time before we diverted through the coastal red wood forests. picked up rt 101 and took a scenic drive through the Humboldt Redwoods State Park.
We finally made our way back to the coast up through Eureka and through the Redwood National and State Park up to Klamath. Along our way we saw plenty of rosevelt elk. We stopped at the mystery trees attraction just to see a huge statue of Paul Bunyan and his blue ox Babe. Another amazing piece of Americana.
So here we are now in Crescent City... tomorrow we go even further north to Bend OR where we'll be guests on a bison/yak ranch.
Pics... http://imgur.com/a/7m6cS
submitted by Whisgo to roadtrip [link] [comments]


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