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from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 315 - 337.
By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLVIII. JUDAS MACCABÆUS. B. C. 175-163. ——•—— AUTHORITIES. HISTORICAL. (1) 1 Maccabees—Greek translation of a lost Hebrew original, which bore the name of Sarbath Sar Beni El, B. C. 120. It con- tains the history from the accession of Antochus to the death of Simon. 2 Maccabees—Greek abridgement of a lost work of Jason of Cy- rene, B. C. 160, in five books. B. C. 100-50. It contains the history from the accession of Antiochus to the death of Judas, with legendary additions. 3 Maccabees—Greek. No Latin translation, and therefore in the Greek Bible, but not in the Roman, Lutheran, or English Bible. B. C. 50? It contains the account of the persecu- tions by Ptolemy Philopater. 4 Maccabees—Greek—wrongly ascribed to Josephus, but print- ed in his works. B. C. 4? It contains an amplification of 2 Macc. vi. 18, vii. 42. 5 Maccabees—A late work, certainly after A. D. 70—known only in Arabic and Syriac. It contains the history both of the Asmoneans and of Herod. These five books were published in one English volume by Arch- deacon Cotton, 1832. (2) Josephus Ant. xii. 5-11, B. J. i. 1, A. D. 71. PROPHETICAL AND POETICAL. (1) Daniel—probably B. C. 167-164. (See Note on Lecture XLII.) (2) Psalms lxxiv., lxxix. (3) Psalter of Solomon (Fabricius, Codex Pseud. v. i., p. 914-999)— B. C. 167-162? (4) Sibylline Books, iii. 2, 3. B. C. 165, or B. C. 124. GENTILE. (1) Diodorus Siculus, xxxiv. 4, xl. 1. (2) Polybius, xxvi. 10, xxxi. 3, 4. (3) Livy, xli. 21. LECTURE XLVIII. JUDAS MACCABÆUS. THE close connection between the Jews of Palestine and the Ptolemæan dynasty received a rude shock in the outrage of Ptolemy Philopator; and, as at the same time they had been on friendly terms with An- tiochus III., from the time of his victory over the Egyptian forces by the source of the Jordan at Paneas, their allegiance was gradually transferred to the Sy- rian kingdom. At this point, therefore, we turn from Alexandria to Antioch, from Egypt to Syria. In the northern extremity of Syria, where "the "fourth river" of the Lebanon ranges, after having risen from its abundant fountain in the centre of those hills, bends through the rich plains to escape into the Mediterranean out of the pressure of the ridges of Mount Casius and Mount Amanus, the first Seleucus founded the city to which, after his father Antiochus, he gave the name to Antioch—a city destined to owe its chief celebrity not to it Grecian, but is Semitic surroundings; destined in sacred as- sociations in one sense to outshine Jerusalem itself. It would almost seem as if Alexandria and Antioch had divided between them the two characteristics of the old metropolis of the primeval world. If Alexan- dria represented the learning and commerce of Babylon —the nobler elements of ancient civilization—Antioch represented it splendor, it luxury, its vanities. And, accordingly, whilst the relations of Israel to the Ptole- mies are almost all pacific and beneficent, its relations to the Seleucidæ are almost all antagonistic and re- pulsive. Sometimes the thought occurs whether it was pos- sible for the Judaism of Palestine to have absorbed the genial and artistic side of the Grecian polytheism, as, in fact, the Judaism of Alexandria did to a large extent absorb the speculative and spiritual side of the Grecian Philosophy. An honored name appears at the opening of the struggle on which we are now entering—Antigonus of Socho, who was regarded as the founder of some such attempt to com- bine a broader view of religion with the Judaic auster- ity handed down from Ezra. One saying of his alone remains, but it is full of significance an shows how a seed of a future faith had already borne fruit in that dark and troubled time. "Be not like those servants "who busy themselves to serve their masters in the "hope of reward, but be like those servants who busy "themselves to serve their masters without expectation "of recompense, and the favor of Heaven be over you." But whatever was the higher aspect of the Grecian party in Judæa was speedily cast into the shade by the deadly struggle which was now being waged between the accursed "kingdom of Javan," as the Syrian dynasty was called and the stern patriots who saw in its policy the attempt to suppress all that had sanctified and ennobled their national exist- ence. In this struggle two parties only were recognized by its historian, "the "Chasidim" or "pious," —a name already familiar in the Psalter—and their opponents, to whom was given the opprobrious designa- tion also borrowed from the Psalter, "sinners," 'law- "less," "impious." The aggression o the part of the Syrian kings had already begun in the reign of Seleucus IV., with the encouragement of the Hellenizing party, for the moment headed by one of the mischiev- ous clan known as the sons of Tobias. The first at- tempt was on the Temple treasures, including the pri- vate deposits, which as in a bank had been laid up for the widows and orphans under the shelter of the sanct- uary. Then it was that occurred the scene portrayed in the liveliest colors in the traditions of the next century, when Heliodorus the king's treasurer came with an armed guard to seize it. It is a complete representation of what must have been the general aspect of a panic in Jerusalem. The Priests in their official costume are prostrate before the altar. The High Priest is in such "an inward agony of mind "that whoso had looked at his countenance and chang- "ing color, it would have wounded his heart." The Temple courts are crowded with supplicants; the ma- trons, with bare bosoms, running frantically through the street; the maidens, unable to break their seclu- sion, yet peering over walls, and through windows, and at every door to catch the news; the pitiless officer bent on discharging his mission. Then the scene changes. A horse with a terrible rider in golden armor dashes into the Temple precinct and tramples Heliodorus under foot, whilst on the other side stood two magnificent youths, who lash the prostrate intruder to the very verge of death, from which he is only res- cued by the prayers of Onias. The story lives only in the legends of the time, and was passed over alike by the contemporary and later historians. But when Raffaelle wished to depict the triumph of Pope Julius II. over the enemies of the Pontificate he could find no fitter scene to adorn forever the walls of the Vatican than that which represents the celestial cham- pion, with the vigor of immortal youth, trampling on the prostrate robber. Whatever may have been the actual incident thus enshrined, it was the natural prelude to the undoubted history which followed. It was reserved for the suc- cessor of Seleucus IV. to precipitate the crisis which had been long expected. Antiochus IV. was one of those strange characters in whom an eccentricity touching insanity on the left and genius on the right combined with absolute power and lawless passion to produce a por- tentious result, thus bearing out the two names by which he was known—Epiphanes—"the Brilliant," and Epimanes, "the Madman." On the one hand, even through the terrible picture drawn by the Jewish his- torians, traits of generosity and even kindness tran- spire. And in his splendid buildings, his enlargement and almost creation of Antioch as a magnificent capital —his plans for joining it with the bay of Scanderoon and thus making it a maritime emporium—his mu- nificence throughout the Grecian world, his determina- tion, however mischievous in its results, of consolid- ating a homogeneous Eastern Empire against the aggressions of the newly-rising Empire of the West— there is a grandeur of conception which corresponds to the contemporary Prophetic delineation of "the king "of an invincible countenance, understanding dark sentences and full of high swelling words." On the other hand, there was an extravagance, a littleness, in all his demeanor, which agrees with the unintelligible madman of the Gentile writers "the vile person" of the Hebrew poets and historians. They saw, instead of the literary Ptolemies or the godlike Alexander, a fantastic creature without dignity or self-control, caricaturing in a public masquerade the manners and dress of the august Roman magistrates, playing prac- tical jokes in the public streets and baths of Antioch, startling a group of young revelers by bursting in upon them with pipe and horn; tumbling with the bathers on the slippery marble pavement, as they ran to receive the shower of precious ointment which he had prepared for himself. The contradiction of the two sides of his character was wound up to its climax in the splendor of the procession which he organized at Daphne, in the most stately style, to outshine the most magnificent of the Roman triumphs, but in which he himself appeared riding in and out on a hack pony, playing the part of chief waiter, mountebank, and jester. It was a union of lofty policy and petty buffoonery, of high aspirations and small vexations, which reminds us of the attempts of Peter the Great to occidentalize Russia; as in the opposition of the old Muscovite party and of the Rascolniks we have a resemblance of the determined antagonism of the "Chasidim" to the Hel- lenization of their race. But Peter's attempt was founded on a far-seeing principle—that of Antiochus on a short-sighted fancy. The resistance of the Russian Dissenters was the mere tenacity of ancient prejudice. The resistance of the Jewish patriots was the determi- nation of a superior faith. To bring into a uniform submission to himself and the Gods of Greece, amongst whom he reckoned him- self, the various creeds and usages which he found under his sway became his fixed idea, fostered in part by his own personal vanity, partly by the desire to imitate the Roman policy, which he had studied whilst a hostage in Rome. In this design he was assisted by the Grecian party, of which we have spoken, in Pales- tine itself. The passion for Grecian connections showed itself in the desire to establish a claim of kindred with the Lacedæmonians, amongst whom a Jewish colony seems to have been established, and with whom a cor- respondence was alleged, as if Sparta too, in her fallen state, was eager to cultivate friendly relations with them. The names of the Macedonian months, hitherto unknown, were adopted either beside or instead of the Hebrew or Chaldæan nomenclature. The fever of Grecian fashions manifested itself in the Grecian nomenclature by which the ancient Hebrew names were superseded or corrupted. We have already seen how the central Judaic settlement had been surrounded by a fringe of Grecian towns. We now encounter the same tendency in the heart of every Jewish family. Jehoiakim becomes Alcimus; Solomon from analogy of the great Jewish and the great Gentile King, becomes Alexander; Salome, Alexandra; Onias, or Joseph, is transformed into Menelaus; Judas be- comes Aristobulus; Mattathias, Antigonus; John or Jonathan, Hyrcanus or Jannæus; Joshua sometimes becomes Jesus, sometimes the Argonautic hero Jason, sometimes Alexander, in its etymological sense of Champion. The era observed by the Jews in their civil contracts, even till A.D. 1040, was the era of the Seleucidæ, still observed by Eastern Christians as the era of Alexander, and adopted by the Syrian kingdom from October, B.C. 312—when the world seemed to begin again from the victory by which Seleucus wrested from Antigonus the ancient capital of Chaldæa, which even in its ruins was the prize of the East. The High Priesthood, like the modern Patriarchates, was sold by the foreign Government, in the needy con- dition of the Syrian finances, to the highest bidder, and amongst the various rivals Jason succeeded, who added to his bribes the attempt to win the favor of Antiochus by adopting the Gentile usages. It is startling to think of the sudden influx of Grecian manners into the very centre of Palestine. The modesty of the sons and daughters of Abraham was shocked by the establish- ment of the Greek palæstra, under the very citadel of David, where, in defiance of some of the most sensitive feelings of their countrymen, the most active of the Jewish youths completely stripped themselves and ran, wrestled, leaped in the public sports, like the Grecian athletes, wearing only the broad-brimmed hat in imi- tation of the headgear of the God Hermes, guardian of the gymnastic festivals. Even the priests in the temple caught the infection, left their sacrificial duties unfin- ished, and ran down from the Temple court to take part in the spectacle as son as they heard the signal for throwing the discus, which was to lead off the games. The sacred names of Jerusalem and Judæa were laid aside in favor of the title of "citizens of An- "tioch." A deputation of these would-be Greeks was sent by "the hateful Jason" to a likeness of the Olympian festival celebrated in the presence of the King at Tyre, in honor of the ancient sanctuary of Moloch or Melcart, now transformed into the Grecian Hercules; though here, with a curious scruple which withheld the pilgrims from going the whole length with their chief, they satisfied their consciences by spending the money intended for the sacrifice in the building of the war-galleys of the Syrian navy. With these lax imitations of the Pagan worship, the corruptions of the Priesthood became more and more scandalous. Mene- laus outbid Jason for the office. Their brother Onias took refuge from his violence in the sanctuary of Apollo at Daphne, near Antioch, and was thence dragged forth and killed, with a sacrilegious per- fidy which shocked Jew and heathen alike, and called out almost the only sign of human feeling which the Jewish annalist allows to the Syrian King. Onias himself, like a Becket or a Stanislaus, was transformed by a popular apotheosis into the celestial champion of his nation; and a long-standing monument of the hor- ror created by his murder was the rival temple at He- liopolis, built by his son Onias, who fled from Palestine on hearing of his father's death, as though there were no longer a home or a sanctuary for him in Palestine. Jason himself, after a momentary victory over his brother Menelaus in Jerusalem, was expelled, and closed a wandering exile by dying amongst the Spartan mountains. "And he that cast out many unburied "had none to mourn for him, nor any solemn funerals "at all, nor sepulchre with his fathers." In the midst of this dissolution of Jewish society it is no wonder that to the tension of imagination which such a time produces portents should have appeared— such as we find not only in the final siege of Jerusalem, but in the Gothic invasion of ancient Rome, in the plague of Papal Rome, in the fall of the Empire of Mon- tezuma in Mexico, in the Plague of London, in the French war of 1870. It happened that "through all "the city, for the space almost of forty days, there "were seen horsemen galloping through the air, in "cloth of gold, and armed with lances like a band of "soldiers, and squadrons of cavalry in array, and "charges, and encounters, and shaking of shields, and "multitude of pikes, and drawing of swords, and glit- "tering of golden ornaments, and harness of all sorts." The prayer "that this apparition might turn for good" was presently answered by the approach of the most startling catastrophe which the Jewish colony had ex- perienced since its return from Babylon, and which yet, with a fine moral sense of a deserved Nemesis, the nobler spirits among them acknowledged to be the just retribution for their crimes. It was after completing his conquest of Egypt that Antiochus, in pursuit at once of his political and religious ambition, seized upon Jerusalem. The terrified population fled before him. They were hewn down in the streets; they were pursued to the roofs of their houses. But that which even more than this widespread massacre thrilled the city with consternation was the sight of the King, in all the pomp of royalty, led by the apostate Menelaus into the sanctuary itself. It was believed by the Greek world that he reached the innermost recess and there found the statue of the founder of the nation—the great lawgiver Moses—with the long flowing beard which tradition assigned to him, and seated on the Egyptian ass, from the time of the Exodus down to the second century of our era the inseparable accompani- ment of the Israelite. With characteristic rapacity he laid hands on the sacred furniture which the wealthy Babylonian Jews had contributed through the hands of Ezra—the golden altar of incense, the golden candle- stick, the table of consecrated bread, and all the lesser ornaments and utensils. The golden candlestick, which was an object of especial interest from its containing the perpetual light, was traditionally believed to have fallen to the share of the renegade High Priest Mene- laus. The great deposits which had escaped the grasp of Heliodorus, and which, but for the national deprav- ity, would, it was thought, have been again defended by celestial champions, were seized by the king kimself. Then came another sudden attack under Apollonius the tax-gatherer, successor of Heliodorus, who took occasion to attack them on their day of weekly rest, scattering them or dragging them off to the slave-mar- ket from the midst of their festivities. It is a strat- egem which occurs so often at this time as to lose its point, but which shows how rigidly since Nehemiah's time the observance of the Sabbath had set in. The rest, both of the seventh day and of the seventh year, had now become a fixed institution, guarded with the utmost tenacity, and carried into the most trivial and, at times, impracticable details. There was a short pause, during which consternation spread throughout the country. In every home there was desolation as if for a personal sorrow. The grief of the women was even more affecting that the indignant sorrow of the men; and showed how completely they shared the misfortunes of their country. The Holy City was transformed into the likeness of a Grecian garrison. The walls that Nehemiah had built with so much care were dismantled; the houses in their neigh- borhood were burnt; another massacre and another cap- tivity followed. The blood ran through the streets and even in the Temple courts. The hill on which had stood the Palace of David was fortified with a separate wall, took the name of "The Height" ("Acra"), and was occupied with the Greek or Grecian party, the more ir- ritating of those who still adhered to their country and their faith because it overlooked the Temple itself. It was regarded as a perpetual tempter, an adversary or devil in stone—as a personal enemy. And over this fortress presided Philip, of rough Phrygian manners, and, more odious than all, the High Priest Menelaus, "who bore a heavy hand over all the citizens, hav- "ing a malicious hatred against his countrymen the "Jews." But the worst was still to come. As soon as the en- tanglements of Antiochus in his Egyptian war allowed him a respite for his Syrian projects he determined on carrying out his fixed plans of a rigid uniformity throughout the land—"that all should be "one people and that every one should hear his laws." There was not a corner of Judæa which was not now invaded by the emissaries of Polytheism, rendered yet more hateful by the assistance received from the renegade Israelites. A special commissioner was set to preside over this forced conversion; it is uncertain whether from Antioch, or, as if to introduce the new worship from its most genuine seat, from Athens. Under him, adopting the existing framework of the Jewish constitu- tion for the purpose, "overseers" (as we have already seen expressed in the Greek original by the word which has passed into "Bishops") were sent through- out the several districts both of Judæa and Sama- ria. The Divinity to whom the Holy Mount of Jeru- salem was to be dedicated was the Father of Gods and men, in whose honor Antiochus had already begun at Athens the stately temple, even of his own age a wonder of the world, of which the magnificent ruins still stand on the banks of the Ilissus—Jupiter Olym- pius. On Mount Gerizim—apparently because the Samaritans gave the new worship a more hospitable welcome—was planted the sanctuary of the patron of hospitality—Jupiter Xenius. The gay Dionysiac festival was also established, and the grave Israelites were compelled to join in the Bacchanalian procession with wreaths of ivy round their heads—sometimes with the mark of the ivy- leaf branded into their skins. The King's own special deity was not of his Grecian ancestry, nut one bor- rowed from Rome—whether the War-God Mars, Father of the Roman people, or Jupiter of Capi- toline Rock, to whom he began to build a splendid temple at Antioch—in either case, filling even the Jews, to whom all these divinities might have been thought equally repugnant, with a new thrill of sorrow, as indicating a disrespect even of the religions of his own race; and introduced a strange and terrible name. "He regarded not the God of his fathers, he "honored the God of forces, a God whom his fathers "knew not"—a God whose temples were fortresses. In every town and village of the country were erected altars, at which the inhabitants were compelled to offer sacrifices in the heathen form, and on the King's birthday to join in the sacrificial feast. The two chief external marks of Judaism—the repose of the Sabbath and the proud badge of ancient civiliza- tion, the rite of circumcision—were strictly for- bidden on pain of death. And at last the crowning misery of all, which sent a shock through the whole community, was the deliberate desecration of the Temple, not only by adapting it to Grecian worship, but by every species of outrage and dishonor. The great gates were burned. The name of the officer who had charge of setting fire to them was known and marked out—Callisthenes. Its smooth and well-kept courts were left to be overgrown by rank vegetation, in the shelter of which, as in the groves of Daphne, the licentious rites of Antioch were carried on. And now came the culminating horror. It was the 23d of the month of Mareschvan (November) that the enclosure was broken between the outer and inner court; in after days the breaches were pointed out in thirteen places. On the 15th of the next month (Chisleu—December) a small Grecian altar was planted on the huge platform of the altar of Zerubbabel in honor of the Olympian Jupiter. On the 25th the profanation was consum- mated by introducing a herd of swine and slaughtering them in the sacred precincts. One huge sow was chosen from the rest. Her blood was poured on the altar be- fore the Temple and on the Holy of Holies within. A mess of broth was prepared from he flesh, and sprinkled on the copies of the Law. This was the "abomination "of desolation"—the horror which made the whole place a desert. From that moment the daily offerings ceased, the perpetual light of the great candlestick was extinguished—the faithful Israelites fled from the pre- cincts. When, in the last great pollution of Jerusalem under the Romans, a like desecration was attempted, no other words could be found more solemn than those already used in regard to Syrian distress. But the persecution was not confined to the extirpation of the national worship. Every Jew was constrained to con- form to the new system. The children were no longer to receive the initiatory rite of circumcision. The swine's flesh was forced into the mouths of the reluct- ant worshippers, who were compelled to offer the un- clean animal on altars erected at very door and in every street. The books of the Law, multiplied and treasured with so much care from the days of Ezra, were burnt. Many assisted and bowed before the oppressor. One example was long held in horror, which shows that there were some who welcomed the intrusion with delight. There was a daughter of the priestly order of Bilgah, Miriam, who had married a Syrian officer, and with him entered the temple, and, as they approached the altar, she struck the altar with her shoe, exclaim- ing, "Thou insatiable wolf, how much longer art thou "to consume the wealth of Israel, though thou canst "not help them in their hour of need?" It was the remembrance of the rapacity of her family, so it was said, that drove her into this fierce reaction. When the worship was restored, the disgrace which she had brought on the order was perpetuated, and they alone of the priestly courses had no separate store-room, or separate rings for their victims. But others dared the worst rather than submit. Some con- cealed themselves in the huge caverns of the neigh- boring hills, and were suffocated by fires lighted at the mouth. Two mothers were hanged on the wall, with their dead babies at their breasts, whom they had circumcised. A venerable scribe of ninety years of age, Eleazar, steadily refused to retain the hated swine's flesh in his mouth; stripped of his clothes, but, as the latest version finally expresses it, wrapped in the dig- nity of old age and piety, like a fine athlete in the Gre- cian games, he walked boldly to the rack, on which he was scourged to death. "I will show myself such "an one as my age requireth, and leave a notable ex- "ample to such as be young to die willingly and cour- "ageously for the honorable and holy laws." Most memorable was the slow torture by which the mother and her seven sons expired. It was told in a narrative couched, like the martyrologies of Christian times, in exaggerated language, and disfiguring the noble pro- testations of the sufferers by the invocations of curses on the persecutors, but still forcibly expressing the liv- ing testimony of conscience against the interference of power, the triumph of the spirit over outward suffering. The very implements of torture are the same which have lived on through all the centuries in which theo- logical hatred and insane cruelty have overborne the natural affections of the human heart. The rack, the wheel, the scourge, the flame, have been handed on from Antiochus to Diocletian, to the Council of Con- stance, to Philip II., to Calvin, to Louis XIV. These are the first of the noble army of martyrs to whom history has given a voice. "Vixere fortes ante "Agamemnona." Those who were slain by Jezebel or Manasseh may have nourished in their deaths a curage as high and a faith as firm. But they passed to their reward in silence. In the earlier account even those who fell under the tyranny of Antiochus, their end is described with a severe brevity, which for solemn impressiveness leaves nothing to be desired, "So "then they died." But the later account places in the mouths of the sufferers the words destined to animate the long succession of the victims of religious intoler- ance, whether heathen against Christian, Christian against Jew, Catholic against Protestant, Protestant against Protestant. "What wouldst thou ask or learn? "We are ready to die rather than transgress the laws "of our fathers. It is manifest unto the Lord that hath "the holy knowledge that whereas I might have been "delivered from death, I now endure grievous pains "in body, but in soul I am well content to suffer these "things because I fear Him." In this sense Eleazar was justly honored in the ancient Church as the Proto- Martyr. The seven brothers were, by a bold fiction of ecclesiastical law, entitled "Christian Martyrs"— Christianum nomen, postea divulgatum, factis anteces- serunt. In this terrible crisis it is not surprising that what ever sparks of the spirit of the Psalmist and the Prophet still lingered should once more have been evoked from the depths of the national heart. There are two Psalms at least—the 74th and the 79th—which can hardly be the expression of any period but this. They describe with passionate grief the details of the profanation of the sanctuary, the gates in flames, the savage soldiers hewing down the delicate carved work, the axe and hatchet, like woodmen in a forest, the roar of the irreverent multitude, the erec- tion of the heathen emblems; they sigh over the in- dignity of the corpses slain in the successive massacres, left outside of the walls of the city to be devoured by vulture and jackal—they look in vain for a Prophet to arise—they console themselves with the recollection of the overthrow of he huge monsters of the earlier empires, and with the hope that this crisis will pass in like manner. Another burst of anguish was in the eighteen Psalms ascribed to Solomon, but probably of this epoch. In them we see the battering-ram beating down the walls, the proud heathens stalking through the Temple courts, not so much as taking off their shoes; we hear the bitter curses on those who endeavor to please men, and who dissemble their own convictions; we see those who frequented the syna- gogues of some anointed of the Lord who should, like David, deliver them from their enemies. But there was a yet more important addition to the sacred literature of this period. Even those who would place the composition of the Book of Daniel at an earlier time will not deny that this was the exact date—to be measured almost by the year and the month—when as a whole or piecemeal it made its appearance and significance felt throughout the suffering nation. "Antiochus was on his way "northward from Egypt. The complete suppression "of the Temple sacrifices might then have lasted a "twelvemonth, and everything had reached that state "of extreme tension when the ancient religion upon "its sacred soil must either disappear from view com- "pletely for long ages, or must rise in fresh strength "and outward power against enemies thus immoder- "ately embittered. It was at this crisis, in the sultry "heat of an age thus frightfully oppressive, that this "book appeared with its sword-edge utterance, its "piercing exhortation to endure in the face of the despot, "and its promise, full of Divine joy, of near and sure "salvation. No dew of heaven could fall with more "refreshing coolness on the parched ground, no spark "from above alight with a more kindling power on the "surface so long heated with a hidden glow. With "winged brevity the book gives a complete survey of "the history of the kingdom of God upon earth, show- "ing the relations which it had hitherto sustained in "Israel to the successive great heathen empires of the "Chaldæan, the Medo-Persians, and Greeks,—in a word, "towards the heathenism which ruled the world; and "with the finest perception it describes the nature "and individual career of Antiochus Epiphanes and his "immediate predecessors so far as was possible in view "of the great events which had just occurred. Rarely "does it happen that a book appears as this did, in "the very crisis of the times, and in a form most "suited to such an age, artificially reserved, close and "severe, and yet shedding so clear a light through "obscurity., and so marvellously captivating. It was "natural that it should soon achieve a success entirely "corresponding to its inner truth and glory. And "so, for the last time in the literature of the Old Tes- "tament, we have in this book an example of a work "which, having sprung from the deepest necessities of "the noblest impulses of the age, can render to that "age the purest service; and which by the develop- "ment of events immediately after, receives with such "power the stamp of Divine witness that it subse- "quently attains imperishable sanctity." Whether the narrative of the faithful Israelites in the court of Nebuchadnezzar and of Darius had been handed down from the Exile, or whether they were then produced for the first time, the practical result must have been the same. As the seven sons are the first example of the heroic testimony of martyrs' words, so the narrative of the Three Children in the Fire and of Daniel in the Lions' Den is the first glori- fication, the first canonization, so to speak, of the martyr spirit. And accordingly at this time we first find them cited as encouragements and consolations.
2019.08.11 12:49 MarleyEngvall tabula smaragdina has been created
By James Churchward THE CHILDREN OF MU CHAPTER IX EGYPT It is not my intention to write a history of Egypt. Many histories of Egypt have already been written, enough to fill a library by themselves. My sole object in this work is: First, to show by records, not theories, who the original Egyptians were. Second, to show that the original settlers in Egypt were the children of Mu and came directly from Mu, the Motherland, to Egypt. This will unravel the apparent mystery encountered by ethnologists as to the origin of the Egyptians and show the reason why, from the beginning of the Egyptian history, the Egyptians have been found to have been a highly civilized, cultured people. Many Egyptologists find enigmas concerning the two Egyptian religious cults. These apparent enigmas are brushed aside when it is known in what way Egypt was first peopled and by whom. Egyptologists have gone far astray in their many theories and deductions on many points simply because they have not understood the symbology of the ancients and their symbolical writings, nor could they comprehend the esoteric meanings of these writings. For this they cannot be blame, for no key has been found and no school existed where they could be learned. These secrets, for many hundreds of years at least, have been known only to a very few old, Oriental sages. And these old sages spend their lives in their temples and monasteries, seldom coming in contact with the outer world. When they have done so, the information given by them is so unorthodox to present theories that the recipients have looked upon it as a pack of nonsense. Egypt was colonized by two sets of people, commencing at two separate and distinct parts. One set coming to Lower Egypt from the West, the other set coming to Upper Egypt from the East. The colonists coming from the West made their first settlement at Sais on the Nile Delta and were anciently known as the Nile Colony. The colonists coming from the East made settlements on the East Coast of Africa from Cape Guardefui to the head of the Red Sea. In India I find the name Maioo given as the name of this colony, but whether it included all of the territory heretofore mentioned, or only a part near Suakin on the Red Sea, I cannot say. Maioo was their Capital City, at least at the time of the writing of the Indian records, and it would seem to have been the name of the district as well. From the coast they worked back until they came to the Nile. Here they extended themselves both up and down. Eventually, the Upper Egyptians met the Lower Egyptians on the Nile, thus forming another complete chain of man around the earth. About ten thousand years after the first settlement was made at Sais, war broke out between the people of Upper Egypt and the people of Lower Egypt, resulting in the overthrow of the Lower Egyptians. The two were then joined and thereafter formed one empire. I will now go back and trace the Upper Egyptians to their colony from India. THE MAIOO COLONY.——After the Babylonian Colony was formed, how long afterwards is not known, the Nagas from India took another step to the West. From India they went to northeast Africa. They made settle- ments in the Gulf of Aden and at different points on the West Coast of the Red Sea. Both Indian and Egyptian records speak of their settlement at Maioo in Nubia, Upper Egypt. Maioo was on the Red Sea near where the modern town of Suakin is situated. The colonization took place somewhere in the neighborhood of 15,000 years ago. At that time the country was flat, for up to this time the African mountains had not been raised. It is also doubtful if any of the present desert lands then existed in this part of the earth. Later the settlers are found to have worked their way inland as far as the headwaters of the Nile, namely, to the White and Blue Niles. This Naga settlement grew flourished, and became very powerful. Eventually, they made war on the Malays, the Lower Egyptians, conquered them and turned the two Egypts into one Empire. Mena or Menes was the first dynastic king to reign over both Upper and Lower Egypt and with his appearance on the historical stage of Egypt, the title of "King of the North and South was adopted. The origin of the Upper Egyptians is easily traced by their principal symbol of the Deity, the Sun, which is verified by written records in both India and Egypt. The well-known Egyptian winged solar disk, with its pair of serpents, was introduced into Lower Egypt by the Upper Egyptians. The Egyptian winged circle is the only one among the many designs of this symbol found in all ancient countries, that has a serpent in the design. This is not accidental, nor was it added for the sake of artistry. It was their expression of reverence for the Creator, and to retain the memory that in their olden times and mother country, they used principally the symbol Naga, the serpent, to symbolize the Deity as Creator. In this design the Sun is made the principal symbol, being placed as the central figure in the design. While the Sun became their most sacred symbol of the Deity, the Serpent as the Creator came next. Beyond these two, no other of the many symbols of the Deity are used without their being shown as secondary, symbolizing attributes. Even the crown of the king was adorned with the serpent as the symbol of the Creator. The Sun was not used in the crown because the Sun was the Infinite, the Almighty; thus to have used the Sun would have been sacrilege. Thus we see the reflection of India in Egypt. These people came from India and retained that which reminded them of India. Philostratus, in "Life of Tyana," page 146, says: "The first Egyptians were a colony from India." Valmiki, the Hindu sage-historian, whose works were written from the records of the Rishi Temple at Ayhodia, says: "The Mayas from India established a colony in Egypt, giving it the name of Maioo. Records state that Narana, the High Priest of the Temple, read the records to Valmiki and Valmiki wrote them from his dictation. Valmiki in "Ramayana," Vol I, page 342, Fauche's translation, reads: "The Naacals first established them- selves in the Deccan, India, and from there carried their religion and learning to the colonies of Babylonia and Egypt." Brunsen, in "Egypt's Place in World's History," Vol. 4, page 58, says: "The latest date at which commencement of Egyptian life, the migration from the Euphrates district, can have taken place was 9850 B. C." I cannot imagine Brunsen saying that a migration from the Euphrates Valley to Egypt took place unless he had found some sort of record to warrant it. This leaves an open question. Did his record refer to Oman and did he include this as a part of the Euphrates district, or did some of the Akkadians actually join the companies going to Egypt from Oman or Akkad? Personally, I have never come across any records stating that the Akkadians took any part in the colonization of Egypt from India, but I have not seen all the records there are by a very long way. Yet another possibility remains: When the Mayas first commenced to go to Egypt from India, Akkad may have been their supply station en route. Brunsen may have come across some old record saying that the colonists have left Akkad for Egypt, thereby inferring that the colonists were Akkadians, not Hindus. Valmiki's record stating that the Mayas from India formed a colony in Egypt, is not the only Hindu record stating the fact. There are many, but Valmiki's being a temple record, I have looked upon it as being all that is necessary from India with the corroboration of Brunsen and Philostratus. The Hindu temple records distinctly state that the Egyptian Colony was transformed from India and not the Euphrates Valley. Philostratus corroborates it. Now I will go to Egypt and take up the other end of the line. There is no Maioo on the Egyptian map today, so we must hunt up some old Egyptian records; first, to find out if ever there was a Maioo in Egypt, and secondly, to find out its exact location. Brugsch Bey, considered one of the most reliable authorities on ancient Egypt, in his "History of Egypt under the Pharaohs," Vol. 2, pages 78 and 174 says: "The name Maioo is comprised in the list of lands conquered by Thotmes III. . . . The name Maioo is found in a list of lands in a sepulchral chamber in Nubia." This is a perfect confirmation by Egyptian history of Valmiki's record. Nubia lies in Upper Egypt on the west coast of the Red Sea. Nubia commences a little north of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Suakin is one of the present-day seaports of Nubia. Some Egyptologists have tried to get away with the raw proposition that the original Egyptian came from the Euphrates Valley, crossed the Assyrian Desert, entered Lower Egypt, and from there worked up to the White and Blue Niles, then split up and formed two empires. They have not a record or legend to warrant them in putting forward such an absurd statement. Such a contention as crossing a waterless desert, thus selecting the most physically impossible route when a very easy, safe, natural water route lay before them, is the top notch of absurdity. Did not Berosus say that the people first met by the Semitics on the Euphrates were "half fish and half human," and does not Valmiki tell us that "the Mayas were mighty navigators whose ships went from the eastern to the western oceans and from the northern to the southern seas"? Yet these were the men who preferred to travel over a waterless desert twice the distance they would have had to go by water. By the water route they would have saved hundreds of miles of travel, they would have been in sight of land all the way, and could reach their destination without a single obstruction. If any reader will take a map and plot out the two routes, the result will be more convincing than any pen could write. Again, no sane being could imagine colonists leaving the fertile lands of the Nile Delta when they got there, to pound their way through trackless deserts to where they knew not. The foregoing is the story of Upper Egypt. I shall now proceed to show by various records who the Lower Egyptians were and where they came from. The history of Lower Egypt is so interwoven with the history of Atlantis that nearly all known records refer to both, so I am forced to use over again many of the records I used for Atlantis. It is reiteration, I know, but I think the subject justifies it and hope my readers will look at t in the same light. One loses the continuity of a subject when he has constantly to be turning back to previous pages.. THE NILE COLONY.——The Nile Colony was the original name of Lower Egypt. It was started at Sais on the Nile Delta by Mayas, coming from Atlantis under the leadership of Thoth about 16,000 years ago. The Nile Delta appears to have been neglected by the early Mediterranean settlers, as geological phenomena show that Asia Minor, the Balkan Peninsula and islands, and the Caucasian Plains were occupied many thousands of years before 14,000 B. C. At that time the lower end of the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor and the Caucasian Plains were ideal lands for settlers, rich soil and well watered, with an ideal climate. The Nile Delta to them then, apparently, appeared to be only a hot, sandy country. Therefore, it may be rightfully assumed that it could only have been a scarcity of land for the ever increasing number of settlers or some untoward event that took the first settlers there. Records will tell, we need not theorize. Schliemann: A tablet found in Maycarne, Crete, by Schliemann says, "The Egyptians descended from Misar. Misar was the child of Thoth, the god of history. Thoth was the emigrated son of a priest of Atlantis. He built the first temple at Sais and there taught the wisdom of his native land." Troano Manuscript: Fleeing from the wrath of her brother Aac, Queen Moo directed her course towards the rising sun and at last reached the Maya settlement which had recently been established on the banks of the Nile. There she met Thoth, the founder, who became her friend and preceptor in religious matters." Egyptian Papyrus, time of Pharaoh Sent, 2nd Dynasty: "Pharaoh Sent sent out an expedition to the west in search of traces of Atlantis from whence 3350 years before the Egyptians arrived carrying with themselves all the wisdom of their native land." Rawlinson: "Origin of nations," page 13: "The Egyp- tians themselves claimed that their ancestors were strangers who in very remote times settled on the banks of the Nile." Herdotus: "The Egyptian boasted that their ancestors in the lands of the West, were the oldest men on earth." Diodorus: "History," Vol 1, page 50: "The Egyptians themselves claimed that their ancestors were strangers who in very remote times settled on the banks of the Nile, bringing with themselves the civilization of their mother country, the art of writing and a polished language. They had come from the direction of the Setting Sun and that they were the most ancient of men." Teiss: "A Miracle of Stone," page 40: "The Egyptians came from Kuiland, the country of the gods in the west." Plutarch: "Life of Solon": "When Solon visited Egypt Souchis, a priest of Sais, and Psenophis, a priest of Heliopolis, told him that 9000 years since, the relations of the Egyptians with the Lands of the West had been interrupted because of the mud that had made the sea impassable after the destruction of Atlantis by earthquakes and the country beyond by floods." Orpheus: "Egypt, the daughter of Poseidon" (Atlantis). Lepsius: Lepsius found the same sacred symbols among the ceremonials of the Egyptians as he found in the ceremonies of the American Mayas. The foregoing is evidence that: The first Egyptians were Mayas; the first settlers in Lower Egypt came from Atlantis; the first settlers in Upper Egypt came from India; subsequently both colonies were augmented by colonists from the Motherland via India and Mayax; that the inhabitants of Mu were the first men on earth; that Atlantis was destroyed by earthquakes and submerged; that America was destroyed and made impass- able and uninhabitable for a long time by cataclysms; that in Egypt Mu, the Motherland, was also called the Lands of the West and Kui Land; that Mu, some- times called the Lands of the West and Kui Land, did once exist and was the original habitat of Man; that Egypt was once a colony of Mu and after Mu went down, became an Empire. Osborn: "In Egypt it is notorious that there is no indication of an early savagery. All authorities agree that however far we go back we find in Egypt no rude, uncivilized time out of which civilization is developed. The reasonable inference from these facts appears to be that the first settlers in Egypt were a company of persons in a high state of civilization, but through some strange anomaly in the history of man they had been deprived of a great part of their language, and the entire written system which had formerly been the means and vehicle of their civilization." I am afraid that when Osborn penned the foregoing, he was depending more on imagination than research such as his subject deserves. Had he read the works of the Greek philosopher, Diodorus, he would have found before he turned the fiftieth page that his "reasonable inferences" were without foundation, for the Egyptians brought a written language and maintained it throughout Egyptian history. The sixty-fourth chapter of the Book of the Dead was written by Thoth at the commencement of Egyptian history. The sixty-fourth chapter of the Book of the Dead was written by Thoth at the commencement of Egyptian history. The hieratic alphabet of the Egyptians is given on page 26. Down to a few hundred years B. C. many of these letters will be found retained in all of their subsequent symbolic alphabets. They permeate the writings of the Book of the Dead. Osiris. Egyptologists differ widely concerning who and what Osiris was. Many claim he was a myth; others that he was simply a symbol; while others declare he was a living man. Some Egyptologists assert that he was a king somewhere. The Egyptians themselves affirm that he once lived and claim various places in Egypt as his birthplace thus showing that not one of them knows anything beyond the fact that he was at the head of the Triune of Lower Egypt. Osiris was a man and his history has been recorded by the Naacals. Their writings say: "Osiris was born in manhood, he left Atlantis and went to the Motherland to study in her colleges. He entered a Naacal college where he studied and remained until he became a Master and a Holy Brother. He then returned to Atlantis and there purged religion of the extravagances and excesses which had crept into it. He then became the head of the Atlantian Church, a position which he held through a long life. The people so loved him for his gentleness and gentle teachings that they wanted to dethrone the King and place Osiris on the throne. This he would not permit and positively refused to allow such a thing to be talked about." When Osiris died he was deified and religion called after him, just as our religion today is called the Christian religion after the teachings of Christ. There is no mention in the Naacal writings as to the cause of the death of Osiris. The Egyptians have their own tale. According to them, the end of Osiris was a tragedy. Osiris, according to the Egyptians, was murdered by a brother called Set. Set became frantically jealous of his brother Osiris on account of the great love of the people for Osiris, which ended in Set murdering him. About ten thousand years after the time of Thoth, the vile, unscrupulous Egyptian priesthood, to bring fear and dread into the hearts of the people and so enslave them for their priestly purposes, turned Set into the devil of today. Before a devil was invented by the Egyptians, a devil was unknown. Before that it was a fight between the Soul or Divine Force and the material affinities for the control of man's mind and, through his mind, his bodily actions. The Soul's endeavor was to raise the material man to a higher plane. This the material affinities fought against and tried to keep him down to their own level. It would appear quite remarkable that the teachings of Osiris, Gautama and Jesus should have been so very alike in wording. In many cases they are absolutely identical word for word. And yet, when one stops to think, it is not so remarkable because they all preached and explained the first religion of man as told in the Sacred Inspired Writings of Mu, the Motherland. The Egyptians affirmed that Osiris was born in Egypt which is a perfect myth as the following shows: Thoth was the founder of Lower Egypt. He built the first temple at Sais and there taught Osirian religion as he brought it from Atlantis. This is verified in the Book of the Dead. Why the Egyptians assigned Osiris to the charge of Amenti does not appear clear except that it was to carry out a symbolism. Isis. Isis is shown in the Triune godhead of Lower Egypt as the sister-wife of Osiris. What was she? Was she once a living woman or a symbol only? Without question she was a symbol only, carrying out a conception that had come down from the very beginning of man's teachings. In the Egyptian religion, Isis was the symbol representing nature, and nature was the productive principle of the Creator—— the female principle. So many attributes were assigned to ' her by the Egyptians that she really appears as the feminine attribute symbol of the Creator. She represented the creation of all things. Thus she appears as the great attribute of creation, the executrix of the Creator's commands. I have never seen her depicted in mummy form. I find that those who have actually lived are often depicted as mummies, and occasionally as a god with a special head telling who he was. That Isis was assigned as the wife of Osiris is simply a symbolism. An old Egyptian writing says: "Isis can never die although from age to age her vestments may change." In other words, she may be known under different names among different peoples and ages. I think Rider Haggard explains the esoteric meaning of Isis better than any other man who has written about her. In one of his works he depicts a scene in front of the Sphinx, after the overthrow of the Egyptians by the Persians. The Egyptian gods are standing in front of the Sphinx saying: "We bid thee farewell, Mother Egypt, our shelter for thousands upon thousands of years. Out of thy mud we were created, into thy mud we return again." Sphinx: "Tell me who gave you these monstrous shapes and who named ye gods?" The Gods: "The priests gave them to us and the priests named us gods. Now the priests are slain and we perish with the priests because we are but gods made out of thy mud, O Egypt." Isis appears: "Behold me. I am thy lost spirit, but thou, O Egypt, did not create me, for I created thee by a divine command. I am she whom men know as Isis here upon the Nile, but whom all the world and all the worlds beyond the world know as nature, the visible garment of the Almighty God. Yet I remain and thou remainest, O Egypt. Aye, though we be called by many names in the infinite days to come; as we have been called in the infinite days that are gone, ever shall we remain." Rider Haggard does not say whether he took his speech from some ancient document or not. Without doubt he had a good foundation for it. One very prominent point stands boldly out, where Isis says "by divine command." These are the identical words used in the Sacred Inspired Writings of the Motherland referring to Creation, as shown in my last work, The Lost Continent of Mu. Isis was the symbol of the Moon. The Moon was her head ornament during all religious ceremonies. The Moon was the ancient symbol for the feminine principle of the Creator. Therefore, His productive principle, that principle which commanded that living things should appear. Niven's Mexican Stone Tablet, No. 150 (½ Size). Found 4½ miles N. W. of Mexico City at a depth below the surface of 17½ feet. This tablet is over 12,000 years old. Deciphering and translation: The upper face represents the Sun as the male principle of the Creator, confirmed by His symbol in either side, a circle with a dot in the center. The lower face that of the Moon, the symbol of the female principle of the Creator, also confirmed by two circles with dots in their centers. The four box cartouches contain writings in the ancient temple numerical esoteric writing. The Creator created one which became two. The two produced three. From these three all mankind descended. Corroborated by repetition. Legend, The Creator made man. Then divided him into two principles——male and female. The two produced three, and from these three all mankind descended. I find the same conception prevailed among the Hindus, the Incas of Peru and the Mayas. Also the people who carved the Mexican Stone Tablets over 12,000 years ago. Their legend runs: "The Moon was the sister-wife of the Sun." Thus making both the Sun and Moon symbols of the Creator, but as His principles. The symbolism dates far back, back beyond the Egyptians and back beyond the writers of the Mexican Stone Tablets. It originates in the Sacred Inspired Writings more than 70,000 years ago and was then used to teach early man that the Deity was dual in Creation. (Lahun, Fig. 4.) Horus. Horus was the third of the Lower Egyptian Triune Godhead. He was the son of Osiris and his sister wife Isis. From some of the Egyptian writings it is made to appear that Horus was once a living man. In others he appears as one of the symbols of the Sun——Ra. I have found nothing about their Isis or Horus in the Naacal writings, so presume that they were Egyptian symbols only. The head of the Lower Egyptian Church was called the Horus, just as today the head of the Catholic Church is called the Pope. To me it appears that Horus being a symbol of the Sun and the Sun the symbol of the Deity, Horus was second-handedly the religious symbol of the Deity. Early Egypt was ruled by the Church before it became a kingdom. Many Egyptologists have endowed Horus with a grand old age. He commenced life at the time of Osiris 22,000 years ago and kept up his health and strength down to the time of Menes 5000 years ago. A grand old age of 17,000 years. This goes the Hindu mistranslation about Rama one better. Rama lasted only 10,000 years. Methuselah was such a youngster he was never in their class. Whether the first Horus was a living man or only a symbol I am not prepared to say. There is the possibility that the first Horus was the son of Osiris, and at the death of Osiris became the Hieratic head of the Atlantian Church——this I cannot say. Herodotus, "History," Lib. 11-144: "Horus was the Hieratic head of Egypt before King Menes commenced to reign. Manetho, the Egyptian priest-historian: "The reign of the sages in Egypt was ten thousand years. The sages were the Hieratic heads." In the writings of Manetho there are references to six different Horuses as Hieratic heads. In certain ceremonies the Eyptians substituted Horus for Ra, thus showing that Horus was the symbol of the Sun. In the Motherland the Hieratic head assumed the title of Ra Mu as the representative of the Deity in religious matters. So later in Egypt the Hieratic head assumed the title of Horus. From the commencement of Egyptian history, and apparently for thousands of years, Egypt was governed by the Church with a Horus. The last Horus as the Hieratic head of religion in Lower Egypt was the Horus that immediately preceded King Menes, according to Manetho. When Upper and Lower Egypt were united under King Menes, there were two forms of religion involved: in Upper Egypt the Sun was the most sacred symbol, in Lower Egypt it was the Triune with Osiris heading it. For two thousand years there was a bitter fight between two priesthoods, each one trying to proselyte the other. Even the Kings were affected, some taking sides with the priesthood of Upper Egypt, others with the priesthood of Lower Egypt. These details are to be found in most histories of Egypt. THE EGYPTIAN PRIESTHOOD.——I have previously stated that the greed and avarice of the Egyptian priest- hood led them into committing the most horrible crimes recorded in man's history. It reached its climax after the priesthood of Amon had amassed immeasurable wealth. This wealth gave them the dominant power of the land which wealth always does, ans as is always the case when a set of individuals gain control of the wealth of a country, it is invariably ended in the downfall of that country. There is not a single exception to this rule to be found in history. Even the Egyptian kings became weak tools in the hands of the Priests of Amon so that ultimately their priestly aspirations were gained, for they usurped the throne itself. On the face of things this did not alter much; for before it was the King-High Priest, now it became the High Priest-King. After usurping the throne their priestly power soon came to an end, for the army rebelled against the priesthood and the Priests of Amon were obliged to flee from Egypt to Ethiopia. It has been written that the Egyptian priesthood never entrusted their religious secrets or Sacred Mysteries to anyone outside of their own fraternity. This is not strictly true as many of the Greek philosophers were entrusted with the Egyptian religious secrets, among them being: Solon, Thales, Pythagoras, Herodotus, Eumolphus, Plato, Orpheus, and possibly others as well. FIRST EGYPTIAN TEMPLE.——The first Egyptian temple was built at Sais 16,000 years ago. The age is well authenticated as it was built by Thoth at the commence- ment of Egyptian history. This is confirmed by a tablet dug up by Schliemann at Maycarne, Crete. This tablet states that: "The first Egyptians were Atlanteans headed by Thoth, the God of History. They settled on the banks of the Nile at Sais where he built the first temple." The discovery of this tablet was not reported at the time except to his grandson, Dr. Paul Schliemann, who subsequently undertook the unearthing of the Sais temple. The following is his report on what he found: "We have been excavating the ruins of the ancient temple at Sais, in Egypt, for five month. Among many other interesting archaeological discoveries we have found a burial chamber of the musical celebrities of that era. here in one of the catacombs, supposed to be from the time of the 3rd Dynasty, we found a huge casket of stone and with it a most unusual collection of musical in- struments. It contains also a papyrus that has not been deciphered yet but I am of the opinion that it is a peculiar kind of Egyptian musical writing unknown to us. The heiroglyphic inscription on the Sarcophagus says that the musical instruments belonged to the orchestra of the Temple of Sais, and were used for the crowning celebration of Pharaoh Amen-emhat I. Among the instruments that we discovered, there were some that produced such sounds as, for instance, the roar of the wind, the waves, and songs of certain birds, and various mysterious voices of nature. "Our music at least has not reached that degree of development. It is only the celebrated Finn——Jean Sibellius——who has made slight attempts at making his latest compositions imitate the voice of nature. But for the Egyptian composers this was a vital issue of their work. There is a huge wood trumpet among the discovered instruments of Sais which produces the weird sound of an angry roaring lion; on the other hand their flute has produced the sweetest tones I have ever listened to. It has an enchanting timbre, and thrills the listener with magic rapture, even if one plays but a single tone in it. I can imagine how that instrument could really make an audience wild with enthusiasm if it were played by a virtuoso. "Most of the instruments of an old Egyptian orchestra were of wood and porcelain. There is only one horn of brass like metal. The strings of their harps proved to be made of a fiber absolutely unknown today. It is exceedingly thin and strong and has almost the appearance of silver wire. But then again there are strings which our chemical experts declare to have been spun from human hair. Thus the strings of the highest notes of an Egyptian violin are made of exceedingly long hair taken from the head of some beauty of that age. An orchestra of sixty-five instruments and a chorus of eighty singers were required to perform the majestic anthem of the Sun. The instrument that seems to figure as the most important piece of the orchestra produces a hollow monotonous tone of haunting effect. The instrument is made out of a bleached human skull, the cavity of which has been made like an artificial throat of some supernatural monster. It is evident that this instru- ment produced a register of unmemorable sounds, but it required a musician who knew the secret of his instrument, therefore it played a unique rôle in the orchestra. An inscription on the small bone says that it contained not only the sounds of other instruments, but that also of the human voice. It was called the dead throat. Thus my discovery is first in archeological records that gives such striking information of the music of the most remote periods. It will throw a new light on the ancient art, and serve as the most powerful impetus to all composers, musicians and singers of this age by suggesting a new style and form of musical expression. "The Egyptians carried the culture of Atlantis to their colony on the shores of the Nile. I have found in my various excavations that the older Egypt was, the more it was cultured. The nation simply degenerated after Atlantis vanished." In the body of my work I have called attention to the fact that after the sinking of the Motherland Mu, all civilizations throughout the world either degenerated or came to a standstill, not only in Egypt, but all others, including India. WHO WERE THE ETHIOPIANS?——The origin of the Ethiopians has ever been a mystery to ethnologists. There are traditions in Southern India that: "In ages gone by companies of Tamils took their ships and sailed towards the setting sun. They arrived at a great land and settled there, prospered and became great." If I could obtain some of their language and writing, I could tell at once whether they were Tamils.
2019.03.08 05:38 1107461063 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended
Guided Notes / Lecture from Glencoe Science: A Closer Look Earth Science (8th Grade Louisiana) Chapter 10 Lesson 3-Absolute-Age Dating Contrast relative dating methods with absolute dating methods, and how they differ in determining the age or rock units. A lecture in Natural History of Dino... Describing the differences between absolute and relative location for 5th Grade Social Studies students. Ricky Gervais at the Golden Globes 2020 - All of his bits chained - Duration: 10:47. Fire Films Recommended for you 'Als deze gast kan versieren met zijn kop, met zijn slechte stijl, en zijn steenkolen Engels, dan is er hoop voor ons allemaal jongens.' - Dumpert reaguurder Je #1 bron voor eerlijk dating advies en Hoe bepaal je de ouderdom van een mummie? In dit lesfragment leg ik uit hoe absolute datering precies werkt. Als voorbeeld gebruik ik koolstofdatering. Dit is biologie eindexamenstof HAVO en VWO ... In this episode I explain how a very important tool for geosciences, radiometric dating, works using the popcorn analogy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio... How does a scientist absolutely know the age of the Earth. Fortunately for us we have Absolute Dating. (On a side note... my green screen didn't work very we... How I Tricked My Brain To Like Doing Hard Things (dopamine detox) - Duration: 14:14. Better Than Yesterday Recommended for you